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Try changing the words or phrases that you entered into the search box above using the following suggestions.

  • Try a more general term if your search does not return the results you want.
    • Example: Search on snake rather than boa constrictor.
  • Try a synonym or a similar, related term if your search does not return the results you want.
    • Example: Search on dogs rather than canines.
  • Consider adding a search modifier, such as the fuzzy operator (~), to your search term(s).
    • See Fuzzy Searches under Advanced Features in the tabs below.

Wildcard Characters

Description

Wildcard characters are used in queries to represent one or more alphanumeric characters within a search term. The question mark (?) is used to represent one alphanumeric character within a term. For Example: b??d could return "band", "bond", "baud", etc. An asterisk (*), however, is used to represent zero or more alphanumeric characters. For Example: b*d could return "bad", "bond", "branded", etc.

Syntax

Wildcards must be placed at the end of terms or within terms. For Example: "b*d", "b??d", and "Ban?" are valid, however, "*and" and "?and" are not.

Examples

Scie??? Sci* Be*r Be?r* Science* Sci???*

Boolean Operators

Description

Boolean operators are used to describe the relationship between two or more terms or groups of terms. IPL2search supports the use of AND, OR, and NOT as operators. In addition, the Plus (+) sign can be applied to a term to denote that the said term must be present within the query results. Conversely, a Minus (-) sign can be placed immediately in front of a term to denote that the proceeding term may not exist within the query results. All boolean operators must be capitalized.

Syntax

AND, OR, NOT : Must be preceded and followed by a term or grouping of terms
+ : Must be placed immediately before the term or grouping of terms of interest
- : Follows similar syntax as +, however, additional terms of interest must also be present within the query.

Examples

cats AND mice NOT dogs "Polar Bears" OR Cheetahs (Cats OR Cheetahs) AND (Bears OR Monkeys) -Tigers

Range Searches

Description

Range searches provide the ability to search between between date or alphanumeric values inclusively as well as exclusively.

Syntax

Range searches must follow the forms of [WORD TO WORD] or [DATE TO DATE]. The use of brackets ([ and ]) will return inclusive results, however, braces ({ and }) will return results between the two given values but not results containing the search values. All dates must be in correct chronological order and be in the form of YYYYMMDD. The TO operator must be capitalized.

Examples

[Bear TO Cheetah] [19980101 TO 20021231] {Bear TO Cheetah} {19980101 TO 20021231}

Term Boosting

Description

Boosting is used to add importance to a specific term or group of terms. All terms have a boost value of "1" by default and can be boosted to any number greater than 1. Search results favor terms with a higher boost value.

Syntax

To boost a term, add a caret (^) followed by a number. The higher the number, the greater the importance that is placed on the term. The number must be greater than "1". Boosting can be used with wildcards, quoted terms, grouped terms, and range searches.

Examples

Bears^2 Tigers^3 Cheet??*^6 "Polar Bears"^5 {19980101 TO 20021231}^4 AND ("Polar Bears" OR Dinosaur*^4)^7

Proximity Searches

Description

Proximity searches provide a means of checking to see if two terms are within a specified distance of each other in an article field.

Syntax

To complete a proximity search, a tilde (~) followed by an integer (non-decimal number) greater than 0 must follow two terms enclosed in quotes. Generally: "term1 term2"~4 will search for the use of term1 and term2 within four words of each other. More complex proximity searches involving phrases can also be used: ""Polar Bears" Zoo"~8 will return results that have the phrase Polar Bears and the term Zoo within 8 words of each other.

Examples

"Bear Zoo"~6 ""Science of" Education"~10 ""Polar Bears" "Zoo Life""~20

Fuzzy Searching

Description

The fuzzy operator modifies how closely a given search term must be matched within the returned results.

Syntax

The fuzzy operator uses a tilde (~) and a decimal number between 0 and 1 directly following the intended term. The results are more likely to resemble the initial search term as the fuzzy number approaches one. For example: Boar~0.3 searches for Boar, Bear, Bohr, etc. However, Bear~0.99 is likely only to return items such as Bear and Bears. The default Fuzzy value is 0.5.

Examples

Bear~0.8 Science~0.15 Cheetah~.4


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