1.3 Essential Functions Of Dna Essay

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1.3 Essential Questions

What is the structure and function of DNA?
DNA is in the form of a double helix. Each subunit of DNA is known as a nucleotide containing a phosphate group (negative charge), ribose sugar, and nitrogenous base. The four different nitrogenous bases in DNA are paired with another nucleotide containing the complementary nitrogenous base. These pairs are Adenine and Thymine, and Cytosine and Guanine. DNA is compacted into chromosomes and is stored within the nucleus. DNA serves as the unique genetic instructions of all of life’s form and functions. DNA codes for the primary structure of all proteins, the most essential molecule for life, and these sequences of amino acids determine the structure and function of each protein.
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Your unique code of DNA defines your stature, your health condition(s), your face, etc. For example, sickle cell anemia is caused by a small flaw in your DNA and a single changed amino acid in hemoglobin and creates a lifelong condition. As mentioned previously, DNA also codes for muscle structure, especially facial muscles and the shape of your facial bones. Your zygomatic arch, orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi, mandible, all vary in shape from person to person, and combining these variables creates the resemblance of a face.
How can tools of molecular biology be used to compare the DNA of two individuals?
There are multiple strategies for comparing the DNA of two people. Firstly, PCR is used to replicate the DNA of the two individuals, then two methods could be used. You can compare either how many certain STRs each person has or their DNA fingerprints. The latter would require gel electrophoresis. This method uses RFLPs as they travel across a gel, attracted to the other side of the gel with a positive charge.
What are restriction enzymes?
A restriction enzyme is an enzyme that cuts DNA at only certain (but can be palindromic) sequences in the DNA. These fragments become
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