Reduce sentence lengths and ensure consistent sentencing practice. 10. Develop opportunities for parole or other forms of early release and assist prisoners on release to prevent their return to prison. These are some measures to prevent the overcrowding of prison which is major root cause of many problems in the prisons.
As outlined by the Connecticut General Assembly in a 2005 study, proponents of the law believe mandatory minimum sentencing are first, effective in deterring severe offenses such as weapon and drug crimes. Second, protect against bias during sentencing. Third, they increase prison sentences for convicted offenders, thereby removing these individuals from the environments in which they would commit more crimes. Lastly, proponents trust the penalties will persuade lower-level offenders to testify against high-level offenders to negotiate their sentence (CGA,
In order to decipher whether a violent act is one of terrorism the definition of terrorism must be clear. Most individuals would describe it as “the unlawful use of threat of violence against persons or property to further political or social objectives. ”(Taking Sides). In the case of the massacre Brown and his group of men attacked those who were pro slavery and saw his views as radical.
Race, Class, and Incarceration The main goal of the U.S. law enforcement has been to make the world a safer place but in the process of making the world a safer and “better” place there have been quite some downfalls. One of those many downfalls would have to be the American prison system. In today’s society police enforcement has given so much focus on prosecuting street crime while failing to acknowledge white-collar crime and other major crimes that occur every day.
Even though Nixon started the war on drugs and focused on law enforcement, his administration still allocated some money to treatment and prevention, whereas the Reagan administration focused only on law, order, and punishment. In Ronald Reagan’s radio address to the nation on October 2nd of 1982 he declares, that the battle flag is up, and the United States is going to win the “War on Drugs”. Drug enforcement had seen major increases to their budget, while money for treatment was almost non-existent. Since then, the war on drugs has only caused more racial tension between majority groups and minorities. One major cause of added tension is the practice of racial profiling by law enforcement which increased significantly in the 80’s, when “the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) developed profiling of drug couriers to intercept and reduce interstate drug trafficking” (Sirin 4).
Over the last 40 years, we have spent trillions of dollars on the failed and ineffective War on Drugs (Aclu). Drug use has not declined and drug markets are become more resilient to the mass incarceration of drug offenders. There is always another drug dealer standing by, ready to replace the one who has been sent to prison. Along with the War on Drugs, the changes in sentencing policies contributed to higher levels of incarceration at both the state and federal levels.
In other incidences in the later part of 1984, one of an IRA members, Patrick Magee planted a bomb in the Grand Hotel in Brighton, England, killing 5 people and injuring 31 people and in 1998 there was a car bombing that killed 29 people. The IRA continued these acts of violence in order to force the British Government to end their rule over Northern Ireland and wanted to reinforce their position as an independent country. They continuously demonstrated how vulnerable London was by arranging bombings in heart of Britain. The IRA started a new tactic in British mainland known as the London Bombing Campaign, in March 1992 the terror attack left a scar in British history as two young boys were killed by an explosion in Warrenpoint. These Campaigns in London were not very successful as they lacked local support and the IRA struggled with logistics.
In a span of just 41 years, a total of 1,468 people have been killed as a result of the ruthless death penalty (“Executions”). The death penalty, referred to as a capital punishment, is execution resulting from a conviction of a capital crime, a felony that is treated extremely serious that death may be appropriate to consider as one’s punishment. Although some states support death penalty, according to David Masci, a senior writer at Pew Research Center, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Missouri and Texas are the only states that carry out executions (Masci).
This would remove the question that ask if one has been convicted of a felony in their past. Although, this does not remove the ability to check the criminal background of a potential employee it does place guidelines that would help someone with a criminal background gain desirable employment. These measures take into account many factors such as how long it has been since the crime occurred, and what type of crime for what type of employment one is seeking. Some states have gone even further and implemented time limits for example convictions for felonies in the last ten years, and misdemeanors in the last five years. All of which will increase the hiring pool and increase the chances of a felon from not becoming a repeat
The answer is obvious: crime. But why does the United States have such a higher rate of incarceration compared to other countries? According to an article done in TheEconomist.com, one of the biggest causes of incarceration is the harsh drug penalties. State legislatures began passing laws that meted out the mandatory-minimum sentences for drug-related crimes, but this still did not make that big of a difference. In fact, according to a chart done by Prospect.org, the majority (52%) of inmates in federal prison are there because of drug related victims.
The reforms made in congress have lowered the average length of jail sentences for drug offenders. Congress should continue to make reforms to the mandatory minimum sentencing and put more exceptions to them. For example congress should rethink the mandatory minimum sentences for all types of all offences. It is important to have mandatory maximum sentences for each offence because it would allow for less extreme punishments for lesser offences. The prison population could be shrunk with the addition of maximum sentences, This would limit the length of time one person is in prison with more time in rehabilitation.
Based on the readings in Chapter 4, during the 1990’s there were 8 explanations for the drop in crime. Those explanations were, innovative policing strategies, increased reliance on prisons, changes in crack and other drug markets, aging of the population, tougher gun-control laws, strong economy, increased number of police and all other explanations (which includes gun buyback and increase use of capital punishment). I was very surprised by the findings in the reach found by Levitt and Dubner. The explanations given initially I believed were very good reasons for drop in crime. The shock was that most of those were not even reason for crime drops and the ones that were actual valid reasons were not what I expected.
Informed policy needs to be created so the appropriate steps can be made to move from our current system of mass incarceration to a system that effectively rehabilitees offenders which results in lower crime rates. After all our criminal justice system was not established solely to incapacitate offenders, it should also aid in reducing recidivism. Rehabilitation, alternative sentencing, and mental health all used to be crucial components of the criminal justice system. Then our society saw a massive decrease in mental health facilities as well as a perceived increase in crime. Crime was perceived to have increased due to politicians and the federal government preying on society’s fear of crime to further their political campaigns and agendas.
Contradictory to what has been said, private prisons are not as safe as public prisons. Private prisons were created as a cost saving alternative, but this means the corners are being cut to provide these “savings”. Staff training at facilities are lower than the compared staff training at public facilities. Without the proper training, prison staff may not know how to properly defuse a situation or handle conflict. In turn, this can create a dangerous and deadly prison environment.
One of the hardest challenges for the United States, in terms of the criminal justice system, is the overcrowding of prisons. In fact, the problem has become so big that the U.S. has more people in jail than any other country on earth – about 2.2 million people, to be exact. To deal with this growing issue, governments and correctional administrations began to invent creative alternatives and policies to handle the overcrowding and to reduce the cost. One of these alternatives has been the use of private prisons, where the individuals in charge of the ownership, operation, and responsibility shifts from the public sector (the government) to the private sector (a third party contracted by a government agency). In order to make profits, private