Preceding the Civil War, people of color, especially African Americans were practically disenfranchised everywhere throughout all fifty states of the United States. The ratification of the fifteenth amendment in the Constitution gave all men, regardless of race, color, or previous state of servitude the right to vote. Even with the enactment of the fifteenth amendment, many states used numerous techniques to prevent people of color from voting. The obstacles that prevented Africans Americans from casting a ballot ranged from literacy tests, poll taxes, the grandfather clause, intimidation, threats, and even violence.
The thirteen amendment to the constitution was passed January 31, 1865 and ratified by the state on December 6, 1865, in which declare that slavery or involuntary servitude should not exist in the United States (Schleicher, 1998) while in the fourteen amendment was ratified on July9, 1868 and granted citizenship to “ all persons born on naturalized in the United States” including slaves, these amendment expanded the protection of civil right to all Americans and is named in more litigations than any other amendment(Hudson, 2002). Finally third and last of the reconstruction amendments, in which was not fully realized in our country until a century later. The fifteen amendment provided suffrage for black men, declaring that “The right of citizen of the United States to vote shall not be denied for abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude’ African were deterred from exercising their right to vote thought a measures like the poll taxes and literacy test (William, February 27, 18690) The U.S. has a long history of discriminatory voting laws.
Without the right to vote, they could not cast their voice for individuals who would change legislation. Even if individuals could read the administrator in charge could create impossible questions for an individual to answer before being able to register. With the Voting Rights Act of 1965 the literacy test and any discriminatory voting, practices were outlawed as prerequisites of voting. The 15th Amendment granted African American men the right to vote. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 enforced this amendment.
He could not have done everything that Mayella said he did, due to the fact that he one has one working arm. The other arm was caught up in a cotton grind. Further more, it would be highly unlikely that Tom Robinson could have beat and raped Mayella the way she said he did. In To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, during Atticus Finch’s closing remarks he says ,“Thomas Jefferson once said ‘ all men are created equal.”’ Assuming all men are created equal like Jefferson said, then slaves should have never existed. Mr. Finch adds “ a jury is only as strong as the men that make it up.” Granted the men that make it up do not believe two men of different races are equal.
This decision showed that even though African-Americans can vote, their vote was not always counted. This caused people to stand up and fight back for their rights that are stated in the 14th Amendment, and protected by the Equal Protection Clause. Eventually the state of Florida stopped going against the two contracts by not counting votes by making excuses that they are “bad votes.” The states started counting votes from other races, and still do today. No matter who won the election of 2000, Florida should have counted all of the properly submitted votes from the African-Americans. Not counting those votes goes against the 14th Amendment, which states that citizens of the United States shall not be deprived of their rights or of equal protection from the law.
The Blacks are being taxed, yet they have no representation in government. The same chart also shows that only one of the sixteen northern states allowed Blacks the right to serve on juries (Doc A). This is a simple right given to all Americans that Blacks do not get to have. Juries are supposed to be a fair representation of the population, yet a whole fourteen percent of the population cannot serve on them. Blacks in the North had very little political freedom because they were not guaranteed the right to vote and could not serve on
become an American citizen they had so many laws and things to stop African Americans to be equal to White citizens. First, there were these codes called black codes they allowed slaves to be freed but they stopped them from having rights they restricted freed slaves from voting, they could not go in jury duty and limited there right to testify against white people.They also were not allowed to own guns or any weapons and also could not work in many places so even though they were freed they were still held against their rights and they did not have much at all. Amendments were passed to allow people as in African American men to vote they banned or prohibited government from denying U.S. citizens the right to vote based on race,color,or past servitude. Also to be free not slaves anymore and
The emancipation proclamation was one of the most earth-shattering events for slaves in America. President Abraham Lincoln began a long road to success to abolish slavery in the United States. The Emancipation Proclamation signed on January 1, 1862, did not free all slaves but only applied to the slaves that were in the South and placed not occupied by the federal military forces. The Border States such as Maryland, Kentucky, Delaware, and Missouri have not included Emancipation Proclamation. The order of the president was based on the constitutional authority of the president since the Congress did not pass the law (Carnahan, 2007).
Post-racial America is a myth. The colorblind/post-racial theory that race no longer matters in America’s society and that the rights and racial order (mainly whites-blacks) of America in post-Civil Rights era just falls short of the truth. Up until 1964, the Jim Crow laws were state and local laws implementing racial segregation in Southern America. Both whites and African-Americans lived under the “separate but equal” status for black citizens and racism was the norm. July 2nd, 1964 brought the end of Jim Crow laws and introduced the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which became a landmark in America’s history by enforcing the civil rights of all citizens and outlawing discrimination based on one’s race, religion, sex, or color.
Following the Civil War (1861-1865), a trio of constitutional amendments abolished slavery, making the former slaves citizens and gave all men the right to vote regardless of race. Nonetheless, many states particularly in the South, used poll taxes, literacy tests and other similar measures to keep their Black neighbors practically broke. They also enforced strict segregation through “Jim Crow” laws and condoned violence from white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. First proposed by President John F. Kennedy, it survived strong opposition from southern members of Congress and was then signed into law by Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson.