Blacks did not have the full privilege of an American citizen until a century after the civil war ended (Sharp). The Jim Crow laws kept African Americans from exercising their rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment through legal segregation, targeting and blaming blacks for
Dred Scott Vs SandFord The case, Dred Scott vs Sandford, (1857) better known as the Dred Scott case was a crucial decision that affected America and it’s black population. Free blacks in America weren’t able to sue the court. The concept of popular sovereignty was also questioned, and blacks with ancestors were imported to America was slave could no longer become citizens. The Case ruled that slaves in free countries are still slaves. In 1857 the Dred Scott case was pulled into the supreme court.
When Homer Adolph Plessy, who was one-eighth black, tested this law by taking a seat in the white-only section of a Louisiana Railway train, he was arrested. Plessy contended that the segregation law violated his rights under the Fourteenth Amendment (Newton, 2006). The case was appealed up to the U.S., Supreme Court in 1896. The Court ruled in a 7 – 1 vote upholding the Louisiana Statute, although associate justice John Marshall Harlan wrote a dissenting opinion. In his dissent, he wrote that “Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens…In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law” (Newton, 2006, p. 294).
Following the Civil War (1861-1865), a trio of constitutional amendments abolished slavery, making the former slaves citizens and gave all men the right to vote regardless of race. Nonetheless, many states particularly in the South, used poll taxes, literacy tests and other similar measures to keep their Black neighbors practically broke. They also enforced strict segregation through “Jim Crow” laws and condoned violence from white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. First proposed by President John F. Kennedy, it survived strong opposition from southern members of Congress and was then signed into law by Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson.
The Act mandated equal but separate rail travel in Louisiana by forcing the railway to provide separate cars for its black and white citizens. It also gave railway officers the “authority to refuse to carry any passenger that refused to sit within their designated race”. (Medley, 2003) This Act incensed a group of eighteen elite black men and in September 1891 they came together to form the Comite` des Citoyens. The Comite`, also called the Citizens Committee for the Annulment of Act 111, opposed the Separate Car Act of 1890. They raised funds, held rallies, composed legal tactics, and decided to run two test cases.
But after the war things began to get good for African American, and the south thought they needed to do something, after war, which severely limited the rights of black and segregated African American from White American. The Southern legislatures former confederates passed the laws known as the Black Codes. Black Codes are, in United States the Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans ' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt. And during The Racial Segregation in America, things was getting good for White American.
Post-racial America is a myth. The colorblind/post-racial theory that race no longer matters in America’s society and that the rights and racial order (mainly whites-blacks) of America in post-Civil Rights era just falls short of the truth. Up until 1964, the Jim Crow laws were state and local laws implementing racial segregation in Southern America. Both whites and African-Americans lived under the “separate but equal” status for black citizens and racism was the norm. July 2nd, 1964 brought the end of Jim Crow laws and introduced the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which became a landmark in America’s history by enforcing the civil rights of all citizens and outlawing discrimination based on one’s race, religion, sex, or color.
The reconstruction was a period during US history, which took place after the Civil War when the South restructured into the Union from 1865 to 1877. The end of reconstruction was a justification that freed all African Americans from slavery. Although they had set this decision and law, African Americans still suffered from social, economic and political barriers, which caused major tension between blacks and whites. The civil rights act of 1875, racial discrimination was banned from public facilities, such as schools or public transportations. The fourteenth amendment protected people against violations of their civil rights b states, not by the actions of the individuals.
The state of Mississippi passed controversial laws in 1865 to assure that whites were a step up from African Americans. The basic human rights were guaranteed to blacks but other rights were denied such as the right to vote, hold office, and to intermarry with whites. There were two Laws in particularly that caused the most outrage. Those two horrific Laws were called the Apprentice Law and the Vagrancy law. The Apprentice Law and the Vagrancy Law allowed whites to utterly make change impossible for blacks and the oppression of “freed” slaves continued on throughout the time these Laws were
Rosa Parks The Civil Right Movement was the African-American way of fighting for equality to the whites and it was supposed to be a nonviolent way to protest. Khan academy stated that “After the Civil War, during the period known as Reconstruction, the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments established a legal foundation for the political equality of African Americans. Despite the abolition of slavery and legal gains for African Americans, racial segregation known as Jim Crow arose in the South”. Jim Crow law meant that African American could not be at the same place as the white people. Even after slavery was over people of colored were still being treated unequal to the white people, they did not have the same benefits and rights that the white people had.