Critically evaluate the claim that it is social controls that prevent us all from committing crime. -Evaluate various control theories. Particularly deconstruct the presuppositions about values and the nature of controls evident in these theories. Discuss the circularity of their definitions / concepts. Introduction: 250 Before finding solutions to a problem, it is essential to begin by asking the right questions.
Why do some people commit crimes, whereas others obey the laws their entire life. Criminology is the study of crime and punishment. One theory of criminology emphasizes on the biological contradistinctions between people and how it might affect their liability to become criminals. I have noticed that some people eventually end up in the criminal justice system, while others don 't. What makes there two groups of people different from each other? Can we say that some people are just meant to be criminals?
The Enlightenment in Europe is considered to have taken place in the 18th century, however the ideas that were brought forth in this period had started much earlier as people began to look at things like science and explorations long before. Before this period, most Europeans did not think on their own and instead listened to others, such as monarchies and churches, on what they should believe. They mainly listened to what they were told by the monarchy and churches because if they were to go against them, especially the monarchy, they would certainly be killed. This way of thinking changed for the Europeans once they actually studied the sciences of the world around them instead of just accepting what they were told. This went on to lead to the European Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment was mainly influenced by the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century. The revolution has brought the fresh outlook of the world to the public by various scientific discoveries. The enlightenment thinkers advocate the people to use the scientific and rational point of view. It was used to understand and interpret the natural laws of the world through the human reasons rather than the supernatural action. It was made more educated Europeans to increase the acceptance of the scientific views on the physical world.
The effectiveness of criminal consequences can only act as a deterrent if the population they target is aware of its risks and consequences. A problem in evaluating deterrence is that in order for criminal sanctions to act as deterrents, potential offenders must be aware of the risks and consequences before they commit the crime. The severity of punishment may influence behavior if potential offenders consider the consequences of their actions and determine that the risks of punishment will be too severe. If there was 100% certainty of being arrested for committing a crime, few people would do so.
In television courtrooms, one task of the prosecutor is to establish that the defendant had the opportunity to commit the crime of which he or she is accused. Crimes are events that take place at a given point in time. Conditions necessary for their accomplishment may or may not be present. Control theorists, like most other theorists, have seized on this fact and tried to incorporate the notion of opportunity into their explanation of crime. They do so through the concept of involvement, which is short for “involvement in conventional activities.”
Imagine a time where your actions, decisions, and thoughts were controlled by a government, and those ideas were strictly enforced. This was what it was like before the Enlightenment Era, and when this happened, it changed the world forever. The Enlightenment Era was a time period where many different types of people came together to challenge ideas from the time, and think of new ideas that would change the world. There are many people that created new and revolutionary ideas, but the ideas of Wollstonecraft, Locke, Smith, and Voltaire share a common overall idea: freedom and equality. The main ideas of Wollstonecraft, Locke, Smith, and Voltaire are similar because they talk about how every individual should have freedom in society, and that everyone is equal.
SECTION 3. Introduction to Theoretical Perspective This section includes the various scholarly ideas on the social phenomena of crime and perceptions of it in the academic discourse community. Many criminologists are of the view that crime is largely an urban phenomena. Others have also argued that there is a strong link or nexus between crime, poverty and inequality.
The Enlightenment movement was vital for the success of the colonies. The colonists started to look to science to explain issues, they turned away from their religion, and they embarked on the journey of gaining knowledge that was crucial for their survival in America. Since the very start of time, there were countless misconceptions in the world. Many religious groups believed that there were “higher powers” that controlled what happened on earth and they looked to everything except science to answer the innumerable questions they had. However, in the 18th century many leaders came to power and started to reveal new thoughts and information to people and it started a movement called the Enlightenment.
Questioning, researching and trying to learn more is a method that improves the individual, their society and future societies. A superior example of this is the Age of Enlightenment. This was a period of time, during the late 17th and 18th century in Europe, when people were questioning traditional ways of living and knowing. The Enlightenment was a time that emphasized individualism and reason in place of tradition. This was also when people questioned religious, economic and social issues, especially the philosophers.