Précis 1- The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit Thomas J. Sugrue’s novel, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit, presents a meticulously detailed and insightful perspective of Detroit’s modern urban crisis and how it is affiliated with post-industrial decline and issues of race. Separated into three sections, the novel argues how white flight and de-industrialization were not only results of “one of the most brutal riots in American history” but also instigators of it as well (Sugrue 259). This riot transformed Detroit as a city, hindering its urban development for decades to come. Throughout the first section of the novel, Sugrue introduces the racial, economic, and political
By the 1980’s, Atlanta was rapidly expanding past the point of containment, and quickly exploded with a mass immigration of penniless merchants. It wasn’t until 1993, with the construction of Georgia 400 was Atlanta alleviated from this rapid migration into the city (Huff). Georgia 400 offered the citizens of Atlanta, primarily those who could afford the new BMW 325i convertible, an escape from all the caged madness that was offered by overpopulation such as longer wait times at The Varsity or an extended five minutes to their trips to The Fox Theatre. In time, many of the Bentley owners migrated away from the crowding city and took their precious tax dollars away to invest into other counties. West Forsyth High School and the other schools in Forsyth now began to provide students with a library and could build a football field.
Thurgood Marshall, Roy Wilkins, A. Philip Randolph, Rosa Parks, Dr. Martin L. King, Jr., among others, have become household names as pioneers of the Civil Rights Movement. Mention of Thurgood Marshall immediately conjures in mind the historic United States Supreme Court Case, Brown vs. Board of Education. A. Philip Randolph immediately reminds us of the “Second Emancipation Proclamation”, Executive Order 8802 which gave thousands of Negroes access to jobs in manufacturing plants receiving contracts from the defense department during World War II. Rosa Parks is inextricably associated in the minds of millions with the Montgomery Bus Boycott. And who cannot think of Dr. Martin L. King together with the March on Washington and
Thomas Moss had a tremendous impact on blacks. Moss had achieved economic success by opening up people’s grocery, and that made him a threat to whites. Colored people were tried of seeing others getting beaten, murdered, and lynched. “Tell my people to go west there is no justice for them here” He said in many rivers to cross episode 4.
Just like everything in the world theirs always advantages and disadvantages. Violence erupted in the Latino community also. The most vicious incident was the “zoot-suit riots” in Los Angeles in the spring of 1943. They were called “zoot-suitors” — young teens dressed in baggy pants and long-tailed coats. Then, for ten nights in June, sailors went into Mexican-American neighborhoods and ruthlessly attacked anyone wearing a zoot suit, tearing the clothes off their bodies and viciously beating
Because many men had to go serve in the army during World War I, many job opening became available. The Great Migration involved many African Americans migrated north in search of jobs and a less judgmental or racist environment. The same African Americans, along with women, took the jobs left behind by the soldiers. Once the war was over, the United States went into a recession, however, a large amount of people began purchasing automobiles. Statistics show that almost one in six families owned a car.
The second mural is now depicting king on looking 250,000 protesters at the capital of the nation on the verge of giving his famous “I Have a Dream Speech.” This was a monumental moment for the civil rights movement and for king because on that day he did something that no other civil rights leader has been able to do. On this day King was able to unite an immense amount of black and white American protesters together with the dream of creating equality for everyone. Equality was an issue that was very controversial in America in the 1960’s. The general view of the public was that the majority of white Americans didn’t agree with equality for African American’s
In Miami, an exchange of Interstate 95 took up 40 blocks of residential businesses and destroyed 10,000 homes and businesses (Blas). This is exactly what the Adequate Housing Act had guaranteed would not happen. The homes that were not directly destroyed by the highway decreased in value, as the constant noise and lights of the highway kept residents up at night (Blas). Many people had their front lawns seized by the government, with little to no compensation (Blas). One novelist, Homer Bigart, stated that the highways had “sent great rivers of concrete creeping like lava through residential neighborhoods and commercial areas, dislocating families, schools, churches, and
Racial profiling has been going on for hundreds of years now by everyday citizens and law enforcement. “Racial profiling happens everyday,in cities and towns across the country”(ACLU).When will this humiliating profiling stop?Often people have walks and boycotts just to show how serious they want their equal living. “Racial profiling is a longstanding and deeply troubling national problem despite claims that the United States has entered a “post-racial era”(ACLU). Racial profiling is when law enforcement target individuals based off their race ,ethnic or religion as harm to the society.
A black newspaper called the Chicago Defender helped with this by convincing black people to migrate North. They viewed the North as a land of freedom and called it “The Promised Land” (“The Great Migration”). Life in the North for African Americans was still harsh because they still faced racial segregation and were given low paying jobs. Housing was scarce and expensive in the crowded cities, and they had to transition to life in the colder climates (Clavin). The life they had in the North was still better than the life they had in the South though, and the North started to become places to celebrate black life and culture
In the chapter, Sante (1991) believed gangs emerged in rapidly growing cities out of the conditions created by multiple waves of immigration and urban overcrowding (1). The book suggest that street gangs emerged from conditions of social disorganization, overwhelming housing, and welfare capacities of the Northwest (2). Government corruptions such as that of the Civil war clause gave rise to gang riots resulting in the deaths of over 15 black men and the disappearance of over 50 more (4). Other explanations given were: marginalization, youth conflict, and defiance (6). Still the book offers more examples like that of racial unity and empowerment, as well as gangs provided lower income tenants protection and financial resources they otherwise
GROWING RACIAL TENSIONS The “Red Summer” of 1919 marks peak of rising tensions surrounding the great migration of African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North that took place during World War I. After the war ended in 1918, servicemen who fought in Europe returned home to find that their jobs in factories, warehouses and mills had been filled by newly arrived Southern blacks or immigrants. Amid financial insecurity, racial and ethnic prejudices ran rampant. Meanwhile, African-American veterans who had risked their lives fighting for the freedom and democracy of the United States were found to have been denied basic rights such as adequate housing and equality under the law. Consequently, they have become progressively more
“The KKK had started recruiting in Detroit in 1921, and since then, their poison had seeped into almost every corner of the city” (24).2 Arc of Justice takes place in an interesting time in Detroit’s history as the 1924 mayoral election was underway2. With an increasing number of Ku Klux Klan members entering the city, there would be a high chance one of its members: Charles Bowles would win the election.4 However, in an effort to battle the political inequality of African Americans in Detroit, Ossain Sweet’s case was supported by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)2. Ossain Sweet’s case was set to be a murder trial, but now it was about civil rights of African Americans2. Since Dr. Sweet won the case, John Smith was re-elected as mayor of Detroit and the Klan’s extremism was deplored. The newly founded NAACP continued to fight for political power for African Americans.
The 11 were falsely accused of being members or associated with the Mafia. This incident was the largest mass lynching in United States history. Lynching’s of Italian-Americans occurred mostly in the deep South but also had occurred in N.Y., PA., and Colorado. The toll of lynching’s began to taper off a lot in the 1930s and 1940s. This period was drawing to a close in the early 1940s with the rise of black political power in the northern cities, the advent or a coming into being of the 2nd World War and the early stages of the Civil Rights Movement.
The Los Angeles riots began on April 29, 1992. The riots started because four white police officers beat Rodney King, an African American. Rodney had been pulled over by police after an eight-mile chase and then refused to get to the ground. A man had videotaped the scene and it was broadcasted in the United States (Wallenfeldt). Jeff Wallenfeldt, the author of the article published on Britannica, wrote, “Although many Angelenos in the late 20th century prided themselves on their city’s ethnic diversity, there was a strong feeling on Los Angeles’s minority communities that the city’s predominantly white police force practiced racial profiling and engaged in racist brutality against African Americans and Hispanics” (Wallenfeldt).