The year 1919 or to say the early period during the 20th century is also known as the First Red Scare in the history of the United States of America. There was a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism all over the United States, which was influenced by the Russian Revolution as well as the Worldwide Communist Revolution. Labor strikes, walkouts, social disorder, race riots, murders and much more violence had created chaos and paranoia throughout the nation. The threat of communist revolution in the United States following the World War I implied radical actions of American organized labor along with Bolshevism created tough challenges for maintaining social order as well as led to interracial violence among the whites and blacks. The Seattle
A social economist views the 1950s as the social classes being defined. The time boasted an image of successfulness during a time of peace and conformity. However, the 1950s do not deserve its reputation as a time of peaceful conformity. The harmonic image of the 1950s was an over-generalization that ignores the realities of what was going on in the country. The peaceful conformity was a false image that showed it’s true colors through gender/ethnic relations and the beginning of the Rock and Roll era.
During the late 1950s and 1960s the southern states in America were segregated. Black and white people were separated from bathrooms to schools and therefore, blacks had to use their installments or they would be punished by whites. While this was happening, two African American men, Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, wanted segregation to come to an end. So they proclaimed their ideas and started to form groups to protest against segregation in America. Consequently, Martin Luther King Jr’s civil rights philosophy made the most sense during the 1960s because integrated schools was the goal, nonviolence could have a huge impact on the enemy and nonviolence was the only practical strategy.
Board of Education of Topeka case, the supreme court struck down the segregation laws in schooling. Needless to say white people of the south were not happy. A town in Arkansas called Little Rock decided they were going to do everything within their power to keep their schools, including Little Rock Central High school from being integrated. When nine black students, soon known as the Little Rock Nine, first tried to attend the school they were barred from entrance by protesters, and the National Guard, who had been called in by Governor Orval Faubus. Eight of the students had showed up together and had left when they saw the extent of the protesters.
The nineteen hundreds marked a period of improvement in all aspects of society: economy, politics, standard of living, technology, and entertainment. However, one thing that did not improve till the late nineteen hundreds was integration of African Americans into society. While it took several years for legislation to pass the Civil Rights Act, it was achieved through new organizations, protests, and court cases which passed laws in favor of desegregation. Considering African Americans were still facing segregation-despite the passage of amendments and laws in their favor- they knew the only way they could make a change was to take matters into their own hands.
Throughout history the black community has faced many forms of racial inequality, more intensely in the South. There were two forms of segregation, segregation enforced by laws such as the separation of schools and the Jim Crow Laws, and segregation that was implied such as an African American giving up their seat on the bus or moving off the sidewalk if a white civilian walks by. By the late 1950s the Civil Rights Movement began to rise. The beginning of the Civil Rights Movement was in 1955 when Emmett Till was murdered. His mother Mamie Till refused to have a closed casket funeral, she wanted the people to see what they did to her son.
In the 1960s, African Americans struggled for racial equality. There has been many efforts made by numerous communities in order to conquer Civil Rights. Many African Americans fought for equal rights. Some such as Martin Luther King, Jr. fought for equal rights by using nonviolent
Ts? On September 4, 1957 a group of nine African American students attempted to enter the all-white Central High, a school in Little Rock, Arkansas. They faced an angry white mob preventing them from integrating the school. Governor Orval Faubus disobeyed President Eisenhower’s command to allow them to enter and called the National Guard to block them. President Eisenhower took action by sending the 101st Airborne Division to handle the situation.
Throughout African American history , the police force has been accountable for numerous detrimental deaths in the African American community due to racial discrimination. In 1960s, African American protesters were targeted by the police force because of the their desire to be be deemed as equal. Likewise, in today’s society African Americans are still experiencing active racial discrimination and injustices from the police force. African Americans have expressed their level of frustration with the inhumane actions of the police force. Police brutality of African American protesters has been rebirthed into 21st century by ongoing racial injustices through Henry Louis Gates Jr. and victims of the detrimental equality marches , evidence is presented.
Civil rights was the most important reform during 1945 and 1980. The civil rights movement was a movement fighting for African-Americans equality, privileges, and rights. The Movement was centered around the injustice of African -Americans in the South. African American faced racial inequality, lack of economic opportunity, and unfairness in the political and legal processes. In the late 19th century, state and local governments imposed restrictions on voting qualifications which left the African community economically and politically powerless and passed segregation laws, known as Jim Crow laws.
“For all the rhetoric of the young and charismatic President, JF Kennedy, and his successor, Lyndon Johnson, for many Americans living in the 1960s the ‘American dream’ remained just that – a dream.” The 1960s in America was a time of great social and political changes. It was the decade of new frontiers being explored which was initially lead by the young, charismatic, Democrat President John F Kennedy. The American Dream was first introduced in 1931 to be defined as; having individual rights and freedom such as freedom of speech, peaceful protest, equality between races, gender and age.
Stokely Carmichael participated in many non violence issues prior to his statement “The society we seek to build among black people is not a capitalist one. It is a society in which the spirit of community and humanistic love prevail.” (Document E) The issue of violence versus non violence was very prevalent, in the case of the Civil Rights movement. A quote by the Black Panther’s minister of defense says that “the time has come for black people to arm themselves against this terror before it is too late.”
The passage of that law caused an all-white school board of Cincinnati not to fund the African-American schools within their district for four years. Their actions caused an outrage in the African-American community of Cincinnati. African-American families of Cincinnati families fought the school board by threatening to send their children to the all-white schools rather attend their all-black schools. The school board would be victors in the current battle for segregation but would lose the war when a family actually sent their child to an all-white school. The teacher refused teaching the child because he was “the wrong color for her class,” and she demanded that he be expelled.
The African American Civil Rights movement existed at large between the early fifties and the late sixties in a society that was constantly on the verge of social destruction. The black rights movement existed politically, socially, and economically everywhere in the United States. As time progressed the movement developed and saw many changes along with schisms separating activists and how they approached getting their rights. In the early fifties there was a large non-violent integration based movement spearheaded by figures such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks. However, as the time progressed, the movement started seeing a more aggressive leadership with figures such as Malcolm X, but eventually it turned into an extremist movement