19th Century Individualism

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11. Technological innovations and scientific ideas about human nature and modern society changed the way that people thought about their place in the world, stimulating artists and writers to new and revolutionary forms of creative expression. What were these scientific ideas and why were they so controversial at the end of the nineteenth century?

Nineteenth-century liberals believed in individualism, progress, and science. At the of nineteenth century, scientific development uncover and command the laws of nature. Darwin’s theory of evolution, psychology, and social science all introduced vision of humanity that were sharply at odds with conventional wisdom. Morals, manners, institutions, traditions were all established values and assumptions
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The institutions were responsible for the maintenance of traditional faith that made them defensive because of all the various scientific and philosophical challenges. Protestants were also compelled to respond to a modernizing world because they were taught to understand God. They had little in the way of doctrine to help them defend their faith.

12. What criteria do you think should be considered when deciding whether or not museums should return artifacts to their native countries/peoples? What should be considered and why? There is not necessarily a right or wrong answer here. Reasonable people could come up with different sets of criteria. I want to know how you would make these decisions and importantly why. Explain your rational.

Returning artifacts to the native countries can be difficult. There are lots to consider if whether the museum should return the artifacts. In the past few decades, some governments have been asking for objects to be returned
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We need to consider the financial situation of the country whether the country can support and protect the artifacts and maintain it. Another example to consider also is the weather temperature of the country. Other archaeologists from different countries found lots of artifacts in Africa and brought it to their countries to perceive and do some research of it. If we return the artifacts, like for example the wooden artifacts. It can decay because of the humidity of the country. Also, if we let it stay in the museum it will be a lot easier and accessible to the public. It can help the new generations and upcoming generations to learn the artifacts of other countries. When the museum decided to return the artifacts, there will be a big possibility of theft or sabotage en route. It will be ideal public target for acts of terrorism.
We also consider the native countries/ people. Returning artifacts can be connected to the meaning of their geographical and historical context. The local people never get to see the artifacts that came from their country because they can’t afford to travel to a foreign museum. It is important for the local people to have the opportunity to see the artifacts that are part of their cultural history and national identity.
Morally it is right to return the artifacts to the origin country. But, there are lots to consider. We even consider the

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