Originally the Florida Supreme Court ordered that a recount was to happen in Palm Beach, Volusia, Miami-Dade, and Broward counties. Bush used the Equal Protection Clause from the Fourteenth Amendment to argue Florida’s ruling. Bush won in the Federal Supreme Court and established that the recount was unconstitutional because it was giving more protection to these county’s ballots than others. The vote to was so close that the decision was essentially made by one person. This shows that the supreme court didn’t vote in what they believed in and rather wanted to help out their own party.
He maintained that affirmative action policies violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution which says that all citizens should have an equal protection of law. However, the court ruled out that the affirmative action policy is constitutional and can be used as a one of many factors in admissions processes. However, it should not be zero-sum, where the increased opportunities for the minorities come at the expense of the majority groups ( Brunner and Rowen
Why Did L.B.J. Sign the Civil Rights Act of 1964? Do you think L.B.J. pushed the Civil Rights Bill for politics or Principle? The reason the Civil Rights was even started was because the blacks was not getting equally rights and getting denied to vote.
Document A gave us a idea of how people without rights looked and dressed. "Some of them sometimes came to class without breakfast". The biggest issue of the 1960 's was the right to vote. They had the right to vote all non-white people did but couldn’t because the system was corrupt and rigged to questions that not anyone could have answered. This bill most likely wouldn’t have passed without the help of the issues the little small town in Georgia had faced in Selma.
What was happening in Mississippi when the civil rights Movement was ending was that a part was formed called the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. There goal was to let the colored to vote for once and all not just 5% but an 100%, The congress in 1965 passed the law that the colored could register to vote without reading or writing. John F. Kennedy made a change of law which stopped segregation within public places.With this law passed the whites still made it hard for the colored to register to vote. The MFDP in nineteen sixty four was also challenging the white congress because since there was no one colored. They elected their own group of party to run because again there was no one to stand up for the colored society and have equal justice.
In this case the Supreme Court debated whether inter-racial marriage should be allowed. This court case came up after an inter-racial couple tried to get married legally but was rejected by the state of Virginia. Therefore, couple did not think this was fair so they took the case up to the Supreme Court where the Court declared that not allowing interracial couples to marry was violating the Equal Protection Clause. Thanks to this case we have President Obama and many other famous celebrities and sports stars such as Seth
African Americans never had freedom in the past, as they were treated poorly. White people discriminated black people back then just because they weren’t the same skin color or came from the same origin. “Set free by the 13th amendment, with citizenship guaranteed by the 14th amendment, black males were given the vote by the 15th amendment. From that point on, the freedmen were generally expected to fend for themselves. In retrospect, it can be seen that the 15th amendment was in reality only the beginning of a struggle for equality that would continue for more than a century before African Americans could begin to participate fully in American public and civic life.”(Paragraph 1).
These three civil court cases were not the only experiences that influenced the Civil Rights Movement, yet they were important because they were giving more reasons and proof of why desegregation needed to be enacted: Shelley v. Kraemer, Brown v. Board of Education, Loving v. Virginia. White people do not have the right to decide whether African Americans are allowed to live in their neighborhood, as shown in the case Shelley v. Kraemer. Also, white people are not allowed to segregate certain schools so that African Americans can not go to them or decide that African Americans can not marry white people, such as in the cases Brown v. Board of Education and Loving v. Virginia. All of these cases are supported by the 14th amendment, which guarantees that all people are equal. “This nation was founded by men of many nations and backgrounds.
There were other obstructions such as white only primaries, literacy tests, race, gender and age. After the fifteenth Amendment was passed, a number of states adopted grandfather clause which allowed only adult males to vote whose grandfather is eligible to vote. African American women also struggled from exercising the franchise to voting. Because of poll tax, less wealthy citizens were discouraged from registering.
The following year Johnson enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which allowed federal employees to register voters, prohibited any change in voting stations unless permitted, and eliminated voting barriers like taxes and tests. Voting centers were no longer allowed to inhibit black voters by making up their own rules, otherwise they would be investigated. Allowing African Americans to do their civic duty and be heard in the federal government was exactly what many civil rights movements were fighting for. The government would hear more than just the white man’s voice with this new law, they would also hear the voice of many oppressed peoples. The inability to vote was exactly what led to the creation of the United States, and allowing another population to vote is undoubtedly a turning point in the country’s history.
When blacks in the North were freed, they were given the right to own property and pay taxes. However, according to the Voting and Jury Rights of Blacks in the North: 1860 chart, the were denied the right to serve on jury duty unless the black male was in Massachusetts after 1860 (Doc A). This example shows that even though slaves were free, the feeling of white superiority and power over blacks still remained. The whites felt that blacks could not represent the United States in court cases, so most states denied the right of jury duty to blacks. Another example of how free blacks in the North were not truly free is also shown in the Voting and Jury Rights of Blacks in the North: 1860 chart.
Chase dreams even if doing so is technically illegal. Throughout history, we have celebrated those who disobey unjust laws in the name of justice. Take Martin Luther King for example. “A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right of vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law.”(King, p469) However, all sorts of devious methods were used to prevent the colored from becoming registered voters. All men are created equal, but the colored were not given the equal rights to vote nor were they treated equally at that time.
Clarence Earl Gideon was not someone you would expect to be a hero. According to www.uscourts.gov, he left school after the 8th grade and decided to run away from home. “He was mostly a drifter, spending time in and out of prison for nonviolent crimes,” their website reads. When he was 51 years old, he was accused of breaking into a bar in Florida and arrested. He was too poor to afford a lawyer, so when he got to court, he asked the judge to appoint him one, according to his rights under the Sixth Amendment.