20th And 21st Century Globalization

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Globalization has a history (Hirst and Thompson). While many scholars can trace the beginning of globalization way back to the fifteenth century, the second half of the twentieth century was a significant period of globalization in its own right. World War II gave globalization a new impetus. Obscured by Cold War divisions, the transformation of world society in the past six decades – in terms of linkages, institutions, and culture and consciousness – was nevertheless profound (Lechner and Boli 2015). In order to properly compare the 20th and 21st century globalizations, it is important to define what globalization is. In the introduction to the Globalization and Development Reader, Lechner and Boli define globalization as having different meanings to different people. To a Korean Pentecostal missionary, it means new opportunities to spread the faith and convert lost souls abroad. To a Dominican immigrant in the United States, it means growing new roots while staying deeply involved in the home village. To an Indian television viewer, it means sampling a variety of new shows, some adapted from foreign formats. To a Chinese apparel worker, it means a chance to escape rural poverty by cutting threads off designer jeans. To an American shoe company executive, it means managing a far-flung supply chain to get products to stores. To a Filipino global justice advocate, it means rules of the global game that favor the rich North over the poor South. For all their diversity, these
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