Basically, L2 learners acquire their second language pretty much the same with their first language. The hypothesis of L2 learners acquire language is as the same as L1 learners, is investigated by analysing the learners’ errors. Errors are crucial source of information about second language acquisition because they demonstrate that learners can reproduce the target language rules on their own accord without memorizing the target language rules. It is easier to analyse the existence of errors in language-learners language if they are systematic.
This is defined as “a separate linguistic system based on the observable output which results from a learner’s attempted production of a TL [= Target Language] norm” (Selinker,1972) which determined how revealing are errors or ungrammatical forms in the ongoing process of language acquisition. While Selinker perceived this as a continual adjustment learners do to their L1 systems to approximate the L2 more closely, in a "restructuring" continuum, Corder hypothesizes, based on the characteristics of learners’ production, that this interlanguage cannot always be linked to the L1 for it displays features apparently derived from simplification processes, and so interlanguage development should be characterized as a "developmental" continuum (Koike,1989) . This enlightens our understanding how this process goes from the L1 to L2 proficiency, and it is important for as Cook stated “ “in part paved the way for communicative teaching methods” (Cook,
The most important aspect of Monitor Theory is the divide between learning and acquisition. According to Krashen, acquisition is the subconscious, L1-development like process while learning is achieved to explicit instruction and learning process. In this model, first of all the input needs to be ‘comprehensible’, following the ‘natural order’ of learning. According to the natural order hypothesis, learners follow a general and universal schedule of progress stage, and optimal learning is possible when learners are presented with input only slightly higher (thus comprehensible) than their current level of achievement. Now, given a comprehensible level of input, with the ‘affective filter’, Monitor Theory addresses how much of the given input a learner will be capable of turning into intake.
The other theoretical model for contrastive analysis was proposed by Krzeszowski (1976 & 1979) under the title "Contrastive Generative Grammar." In this model L1 and L2 structures are generated from some common base, and are compared and contrasted during the process of generation. According to Krzeszowski, traditional contrastive analysis are conducted along the horizontal dimensions involved in comparing an element or a class of elements in L1 with an equivalent element or class of elements in L2 and/or vice versa.
According to Patterson in her article, “Constructivists believe that prior knowledge impacts the learning process. In trying to solve novel problems, perceptual or conceptual similarities between existing knowledge and a new problem can remind people of what they already know. This is often one's first approach towards solving novel problems. Information not connected with a learner's prior experiences will be quickly forgotten. In short, the learner must actively construct new information into his or her existing mental framework for meaningful learning to occur.” (K, Patterson 1) Cognitivist tend to try and make sure that whatever they are taught that they can connect it to the existing knowledge they have already.
First, the 'acquisition-learning hypothesis ', in the learning, learners focus on rules and forms of the language, and in the acquisition, learners focus on communicating messages and meanings. Secondly, the 'monitor hypothesis ' which says what have been learned could use it to edit the speech and give a perfect massage. Thirdly, the 'natural order hypothesis ' assumes that the second language learners begin with known steps as the steps in learning the first language. Fourthly, the 'comprehensible input hypothesis ' it reflects the Krashen 's view that second language learning occurs as a result of exposure to varied linguistic input. Finally, the 'affective filter hypothesis ' it suggests, some variables, such as motivation, Receptivity, and self-confidence, which impact on second language learners ' success or failure.
In lay mans terms Interlanguage can be described as the halfway house between L1 and L2. The interlanguage theory plays a crucial role in arriving at finding on how L2 learnes move from their mother tongue towards the target language. While L1 and L2 show similarities, they also show differences. It is important that teachers should not base their approach or their theory on a single claim or factor in Language Acqusiiton. Personally I can relate and agree with Selinkers theory of Interlnaguage.
Historically, second language acquisition (SLA) research has either tended to direct attention to the process of acquisition itself, or as is the focus of the present study, investigating specific linguistic features in terms of fossilization (Chen 2009:65). An influential analytical model in the latter scope of research is that of Han’s (2009) Selective Fossilization Hypothesis (SFH), which attempts to seek out "both the acquisitional and fossilizable potential of linguistic features [and] is a unique attempt to make sense of fossilizable forms by probing into factors purportedly promoting fossilization in the acquisition
Error Analysis no longer hold that the L1 interference is the main cause of errors in the second language learning,but hold that many factors can cause errors.Also it classified errors,thus benefit both teachers and students. Besides,the difference between Error Analysis and Contrastive Analysis were figured out.The differences included:start point,data,theoretical problems,feedback,consideration of learner’s effect and the types of errors they studied.Moreover,some criticisms towards Error Analysis.Reasons are variety,but mainly laid on limitation in scope,theoretical problems and methodological procedures. Finally,the Interlanguage Theory.Interlanguage is a language system build by learners and is different from L1 and L2.Besides,the term fossilization was put forward to explain the tendency of many learners to stop developing their interlanguage grammar in the direction of the target language.And some criticisms towards the theory. Personal
Reflection on Khansir’s “Error Analysis and Second Language Acquisition” Summary In the essay “Error Analysis and Second Language Acquisition”, the author Ali Akbar Khansir talks about in detail the three most influential error theories in second language acquisition: Contrastive Analysis, Error Analysis and the Interlanguage theory. To begin with, Khansir gives a brief introduction to the development of the three error theories, which serves as a guide to the following parts. Then comes Contrastive Analysis. The Contrastive Analysis holds that the differences between mother language and target language cause interference which brings about learners’ errors. Besides, different visions of CA hypothesis is also touched upon.