rich mixture with equivalence ratio more than 1. This conditions occur during starting especially in cold conditions, sudden acceleration and loading. Due to inadequate time for combustion during quick strokes of the piston at higher rotational speeds. Unburned fuel or partially burned fuel entrapped in the crevice volumes of the cylinder wall. It was observed that the HC emissions for bio-diesel blend was less than their diesel counterparts.
Turbulent combustion and flow processes occurring in direct injection internal combustion engine are dominated by mixing throughout the engine cycle. This mixing is caused by several events such as direct fuel injection and piston movement; these events take place at different crank angle degrees within the engine cycle. Therefore, the mixing time will vary with the mixing intensity during the combustion the engine cycle and cannot be constant. In this work we are usinguse a time based mixing model developed by Pasternak et al. based on a previously developed Curl mixing model [41 and 51].
The principal situations in which flames occur by design are in burners and flares. Ejection of flammable fluid from a vessel, pipe or pipe flange can give rise to a jet flame if the material ignites. An intermediate situation, and one which particularly concerns the designer is where the jet flame result from ignition of flammable material vented from a pressure relief valve (Tong, Lo, Zhang &Chen, 2013). Scenario involving jet flames are not easy to handle, since a large jet flame may have a substantial reach, sometimes up to 50 m or more. Jet flames have been involved in a number of accidents, perhaps the most dramatic were the large jet flames from the gas riser on the Piper Alpha Oil platform.
The cylinder voyages descending, creating a vacuum, around the same time the admission valve opens. The vacuum pulls air and fuel into the ignition chamber and barrel. Layering Stroke - The admission valve closes, and after that the cylinder starts to go up the chamber, compacting the air-fuel mixture. Compacting the air-fuel mixture makes this mixture more unstable. Force Stroke - The compacted air-fuel mixture is lighted.
The sucked atmospheric air is compressed into the Compression Cylinder and then it is sent to the Power Cylinder. The system through which the compressed air is transferred to the Power Cylinder is known as Crossover Passage. The compressed air is then mixed with injected fuel and the combustion takes places in the Power
To obtain gasoline from petroleum fractional distillation is used where in the different type of hydrocarbons from petroleum, which has different boiling points is heat at different temperature. The different hydrocarbons then condense to liquid. The main ingredients of gasoline are heptane (C7H16) and isooctane (C8H18). The heptane and isooctane undergoes cracking and polymerization. In the process of cracking is when large hydrocarbons break down to smaller hydrocarbons while the process of polymerization is when small hydrocarbons
The blades spin at high speed and compress or squeeze the air. The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle, at the back of the engine. As the jets of gas shoot backward, the engine and the aircraft are thrust forward. As the hot air is going to the nozzle, it passes through another group of blades called the turbine.
In a reciprocating compressor, gas is compressed by mechanical variation of the volume of space inside the cylinder, by reciprocating motion of the piston. For a cycle of operation, there are two strokes such as, 1) Suction stroke, and 2) Compression stroke As the piston moves down, air is sucked from atmosphere to the cylinder through suction valve (a non-return valve). As piston moves up, air is compressed and at the end of compression stroke, air is delivered through delivery valve (which is also a non-return valve). Topmost portion the piston can travel inside the cylinder is is called Top Dead Centre (TDC), and bottom most portion the piston can reach inside the cylinder is called as Bottom Dead Centre
In case of deflagration the combustion process is identical to the normal (common) burning of a gas mixture. The combustion zone in case of deflagration spreads at velocities that are subsonic, and the build up of the pressure is slow. Factors determining whether deflagration or detonation in gas air mixtures will happen are numerous and include ignition source and concentrations of components in the gas mixture. Most materials do not detonate unless they are confined in some reservoirs or set on fire by some source with high ignition power - detonator. Nevertheless, even the pressure wave that are induced by deflagration may lead to damage that is not
Carbamate insecticide poisoning exhibits symptoms similar to organophosphate poisoning but without central nervous system signs. Case studies Case report-1 A male student, aged 20 years, was admitted in neuro ICU with an episode of seizure and altered sensorium. He ha no premorbid illness. He had travelled to Mumbai four days before admission. Relatives denied consumption of any poison and medications.