Later, Skinner conducted experiments with rats in a cage. When the rats pressed the lever in the cage, they would get food. Since the rats were conditioned to press the lever to get food, they would press the lever more frequently. Skinner became known as the father of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning was described by Barnett (2015) as a learning process where a specific behaviour is increased or decreased through positive or negative
Pavlov developed the theory of Classical Conditioning. This is where certain stimuli can invoke particular behavior. He conducted his experiments on dogs, testing whether or not he could condition them to salivate at the sound of a bell. At first, along with the bell, he would hold up food, causing the dogs to salivate. After repeating this action numerous times, Pavlov would ring the bell without the food and found that the dogs would still salivate.
79). Watson believed that the differences in experiences of learning lead to different behaviours: "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and the race of his ancestors” (Watson, 1924, p. 104). Based on this belief Watson and Raynor (1920) designed the Little Albert Experiment to explore how classical conditioning can be used to condition an emotional response. “Classical conditioning occurs when two stimuli become associated with one another such that one stimulus now triggers a response that previously was triggered by the other stimulus,” (Passer & Smith, 2011, p. 214). In the case of Little Albert, the two stimuli were a white rat and a loud bang.
However, after conditioning, fear and distress have now been learnt to be felt from both the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus which in the case would be the injection. This can similarly be seen through arachnophobia, a fear of spiders, which is a very common fear among a lot of people. The thought of the spider alone can send shivers down the individual’s spine. However it is not just the spider that
For example if you have a fear of injections factors such as the waiting room, consulting room, the nurse picking up the syringe and holding it near you. For a person to overcome their fear and for that fear to become extinct they need to be exposed to the conditioned stimulus a number of times. Systematic Desensitisation is how this is done. For the person who has a fear of needles they could at first be shown pictures of needles and perhaps pictures of people receiving
On the other hand, the second conclusion depict that the messages intending to arouse a high level of fear or anxiety are most likely unable to do so. In other words, respondent might react negatively to the fear message and against the attempt to arouse fear in them. (Elliott,
As a result, people experience emotions based on how one interprets the arousal (Weiten, 2013). Furthermore, Schachter agreed with the James-Lange theory that physiological arousal occurs first followed by the interpretation of that arousal (Weiten, 2013). On the other hand, Schachter also agreed with the Cannon-Bard theory that varying emotions yield patterns of autonomic arousal that are largely not distinguishable (Weiten, 2013). Thus, the Schachter’s two-factor theory built on James-Lange theory by adding the factor of interpretation of the arousal, which is also known as appraisal and labelling (Weiten, 2013). For instance, I am walking back home at night alone.
Fear always comes up during challenging circumstances, irrespective of your level of confidence, however, you can use it to make you more energetic and improve your performance - you now have a different relationship with fear. This will take some time to sink in but when it does you will see a big difference in your daily life. You might start referring to it as "pumped" or "amped" as opposed to "fear" or "worry" or "anxiety". If you don't have anything to focus your fear on, make a bit of room for it and fully focus on your activity. Would you like to find out more about how to welcome fear and ways to channel it?
Burrhus Fredric Skinner developed operant condition which is process of “learning from the consequences of our behavior through positive or negative reinforcements” (Ayers, 2011, p. 379). An “operant” is some unit of behavior or voluntary response (Wallace, 1970, p. 39). A reinforcement
He divided it as follows-: 1- Unconditioned Stimulus- It is that stimulus that without condition naturally triggers and initiates response. 2- Unconditioned Response- This is the type of response that is innate in nature and no type of Learning is required for the same. It comes out naturally when a person responds to stimuli which are unconditioned in nature. 3- Conditioned Stimulus-It is a type of neutral stimuli that after becoming associated and related the conditioned stimuli, eventfully triggers