Throughout the Middle Ages, the king possessed the greatest amount of power and influence in all of England, right after the Pope of course. In view of this, Henry VIII was able to control the fate of his six wives. He was desperate for an heir to the throne and insisted on divorcing his first wife, but “the pope refused to grant a divorce” (Hung). His “efforts to divorce Catherine,” soon “became a parting of the ways for the English political elite” (David 420). In view of this, Henry VIII was so determined to get his way that “he started a church of his own.
When Henry VIII came to the throne he wanted to be a powerful king throughout Europe. For the first two years of his reign, he took a non military approach like his father, but after this he began to take a more confrontational approach. One of his main aims was to win back land in France conquered by Henry V and to lay a claim to the French throne. Sadly, he did not achieve this and did not have enough resources to defeat the French while they had a wide range of resources at their disposal. Another negative was that Henry was also manipulated
Abortion, homosexuality, poverty, capitalism, gender, sexuality, genetical engineering, affirmative action, revolution, ethnic cleansing are all old issues which will assume greater significance as the new century dawns. Postmodernism demands less rigid and definitely less judgmental answers. Christians everywhere must be prepared to give an answer for their faith in a gracious and humble manner. The iron rod orthodoxy of the past is over. It no longer even gets a hearing.
Absolutism in Western Europe Cont. France Cont. Louis XIV and his Absolutism “Sun King” , thought kings were established by god as his rulers. Feared the nobility Preserved his royal power in the court of Versailles, symbolizing the center of French absolutism French language became an international language like English today Kept nobles close to him, so they won’t go against him Organized life at court around every aspect of his own daily routine Bourgeoisie class was formed under him (middle class) 1.
By centralizing the seat of government and the members of his court away from the centers of power in Paris, Louis was able to weaken the nobility and increase his control over state and government affairs. According to the article, Louis XIV and Versailles, The Palace of Versailles, “as symbol of France's new prominence as a European super-power, Louis XIV officially installed his government at Versailles.” The reason and intentions behind moving the government to Versailles, reflects how he believes in absolute monarchism because his decisions relied on no one else ,but him. King Louis XIV himself had said, “I am the State. It is legal because I wish it.”
These, according to Jesus, are the two great commandments given for us to follow. God has given us directives to live by that have nothing to do with a church. Ecclesiastes 12:13 tells us “Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man”. Do you see any mention here about any church in the “conclusion of the whole matter”?
Psalm 46 is a paradigm shift in that thought process. In 2 Chronicles 20:21 King Jehoshaphat embodied that paradigm shift in Psalm 46. Some scholars have even inferred that the King’s actions actually inspired Psalm 46, but we cannot know for certain. King Jehoshaphat put his complete confidence in God as his refuge, and not in worldly strength. If you recall the story, • Jehoshaphat was facing a great multitude • Jehoshaphat declared a fast • God answered – 1 Chronicles 20:17 (you will not need to fight) • Sing to the Lord and praised him - 1 Chronicles 20:21 • The Lord sets an ambush – 1 Chronicles 20:22 What we believe about God, is vitally important in putting our complete faith & trust in Him as our refuge.
Whether known as Charlemagne, Charles the Great, Charles I, or even Carolus Magnus, there is no denying the extent of the first Holy Roman Emperor’s power, influence, and legacy on the former Western Roman Empire. Initially disparaged as an illegitimate claimant to power by the Byzantine court, during his reign, he would go on to reform the vast majority of Western Europe; eventually leading them out of an era marked by warfare, and a near abandonment of cultural achievements and emphasis on education. Despite Charlemagne’s illiteracy, he learned to speak both Latin and Greek, in addition to his native Old High German. Accompanying his proficiency for languages, he was an aficionado of rhetoric, religion, academics, culture, and both the
Bishops gained a lot of power with control of church memberships, finances, and the selection of priests. In 590, “Gregory the Great was named Bishop of Rome…and named himself ‘Pope’ and the ‘Head of the Universal Church.’” He was the key to asserting papal primacy and started the requirement of confession and penance. He also worked to convert the pagan kings, hoping more people would follow in their footsteps. With the belief that Constantine left his crown to the papacy, the future Popes had the power to crown the emperor acting as god’s representative.
This is a vital question and one that may have many different answers in the course of history. Some would proclaim that the Holy Ghost, also entitled the Holy Spirit, is an impersonal being, perhaps even a mystical force that is the power of God in motion. Others would say that the Holy Ghost is just another manifestation of the one God with a different name and therefore denying the trinitarian nature of God. This is contrary to the Bible which clearly shows that the Spirit is a distinct person, and even more than this He is the third person of the Godhead. That the Spirit is such is taught in passages like Acts 5 where it is said that Ananias lied to the Holy Ghost and therefore had lied, according to verse 4, “… unto God.”
The conflict causing the schism in 1054 was known as an investiture controversy. An investiture controversy describes a dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Empire over who held ultimate authority over the bishops in imperial lands. Popes of this time were corrupt and desired power. They started the Crusades to establish their power over the rightful rulers of Western Europe. The Crusades were armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim Rule.
Charlemagne, also commonly referred to also as “Charles the Great,” was a medieval emperor who ruled much of Western Europe from A.D. 768 to 814. His goal was to become powerful enough so that he could bring together all germanic people into one kingdom and convert them into Christianity. In 771, he became King of the Franks (a germanic tribe) after his father who was the past ruler had passed away. At first his brother Carloman (751-771) also got a share of the kingdom after their father died, but Charlamagne ultimately took over after his brother too died. Charlemagne was determined to accomplish his goals of becoming a powerful ruler, so he spent most of his time in the battlefield.
Why Charlemagne’s coronation as emperor in 800 called “a sign of the emergence of a new European civilization,” had to do with his vision to how he sees Europe. His main Ideology was to not only rule but to leave his doctrine to everywhere he has dealt with. The reason why his ideology became the emergence of new European Civilization was due to his desire to unite his fellow Europeans. The empire was stretched from the North Sea to Mediterranean; France, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Italy was all part of his command. Charlemagne change the way most kings run their kingdoms.
The Roman Papacy’s Power By: Kelli Floyd The power of the church started to dominate when Constantine used its power to control his empire. Along the way, the church grew more and more powerful.
Following the Golden Age of many great civilizations, came the Post-Classical Era. And so came the fall of Rome’s political power, and as it fell to shambles, it seemed implausible that the Franks would find themselves in possession of any influence in European Politics. However, with the help of a powerful political leader by the name of King Clovis I, they manage to find sway in European Affairs. In Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, in “The Postclassical Era”, “The Franks and the Temporary Revival of Empire”, it says “By the time of his death, Clovis had thoroughly transformed the Franks. No longer were they just one among many Germanic peoples inhabiting a crumbling Roman Empire.