Throughout the Middle Ages, the king possessed the greatest amount of power and influence in all of England, right after the Pope of course. In view of this, Henry VIII was able to control the fate of his six wives. He was desperate for an heir to the throne and insisted on divorcing his first wife, but “the pope refused to grant a divorce” (Hung). His “efforts to divorce Catherine,” soon “became a parting of the ways for the English political elite” (David 420). In view of this, Henry VIII was so determined to get his way that “he started a church of his own.
Sadly, Arthur died, but King Henry VII, not wanting to make Catherine’s father angry arranged a marriage between Catherine and his next son Henry VIII. When Henry VIII came to the throne he wanted to be a powerful king throughout Europe. For the first two years of his reign, he took a non military approach like his father, but after this he began to take a more confrontational approach. One of his main aims was to win back land in France conquered by Henry V and to lay a claim to the French throne. Sadly, he did not achieve this and did not have enough resources to defeat the French while they had a wide range of resources at their disposal.
Abortion, homosexuality, poverty, capitalism, gender, sexuality, genetical engineering, affirmative action, revolution, ethnic cleansing are all old issues which will assume greater significance as the new century dawns. Postmodernism demands less rigid and definitely less judgmental answers. Christians everywhere must be prepared to give an answer for their faith in a gracious and humble manner. The iron rod orthodoxy of the past is over. It no longer even gets a hearing.
Absolutism in Western Europe Cont. France Cont. Louis XIV and his Absolutism “Sun King” , thought kings were established by god as his rulers. Feared the nobility Preserved his royal power in the court of Versailles, symbolizing the center of French absolutism French language became an international language like English today Kept nobles close to him, so they won’t go against him Organized life at court around every aspect of his own daily routine Bourgeoisie class was formed under him (middle class) 1. Absolutism in Western Europe Cont.
By centralizing the seat of government and the members of his court away from the centers of power in Paris, Louis was able to weaken the nobility and increase his control over state and government affairs. According to the article, Louis XIV and Versailles, The Palace of Versailles, “as symbol of France's new prominence as a European super-power, Louis XIV officially installed his government at Versailles.” The reason and intentions behind moving the government to Versailles, reflects how he believes in absolute monarchism because his decisions relied on no one else ,but him.King Louis XIV himself had said, “I am the State. It is legal because I wish it.” This quote also demonstrates his belief of absolutism by being able to make laws legal just by commanding them to happen. King Louis XIV decided to invite Nobles of a certain rank to live at Versailles for a portion of every year. King Louis XIV hoped this would deter the noble class “from developing their own regional power,” according to the article, The Palace of Versailles.
These, according to Jesus, are the two great commandments given for us to follow. God has given us directives to live by that have nothing to do with a church. Ecclesiastes 12:13 tells us “Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man”. Do you see any mention here about any church in the “conclusion of the whole matter”? What do you think the “whole matter” is?
Psalm 46 is a paradigm shift in that thought process. In 2 Chronicles 20:21 King Jehoshaphat embodied that paradigm shift in Psalm 46. Some scholars have even inferred that the King’s actions actually inspired Psalm 46, but we cannot know for certain. King Jehoshaphat put his complete confidence in God as his refuge, and not in worldly strength. If you recall the story, • Jehoshaphat was facing a great multitude • Jehoshaphat declared a fast • God answered – 1 Chronicles 20:17 (you will not need to fight) • Sing to the Lord and praised him - 1 Chronicles 20:21 • The Lord sets an ambush – 1 Chronicles 20:22 What we believe about God, is vitally important in putting our complete faith & trust in Him as our refuge.
Whether known as Charlemagne, Charles the Great, Charles I, or even Carolus Magnus, there is no denying the extent of the first Holy Roman Emperor’s power, influence, and legacy on the former Western Roman Empire. Initially disparaged as an illegitimate claimant to power by the Byzantine court, during his reign, he would go on to reform the vast majority of Western Europe; eventually leading them out of an era marked by warfare, and a near abandonment of cultural achievements and emphasis on education. Despite Charlemagne’s illiteracy, he learned to speak both Latin and Greek, in addition to his native Old High German. Accompanying his proficiency for languages, he was an aficionado of rhetoric, religion, academics, culture, and both the
Bishops gained a lot of power with control of church memberships, finances, and the selection of priests. In 590, “Gregory the Great was named Bishop of Rome…and named himself ‘Pope’ and the ‘Head of the Universal Church.’” He was the key to asserting papal primacy and started the requirement of confession and penance. He also worked to convert the pagan kings, hoping more people would follow in their footsteps. With the belief that Constantine left his crown to the papacy, the future Popes had the power to crown the emperor acting as god’s representative. Charlemagne was crowned as the first Holy Roman
This is a vital question and one that may have many different answers in the course of history. Some would proclaim that the Holy Ghost, also entitled the Holy Spirit, is an impersonal being, perhaps even a mystical force that is the power of God in motion. Others would say that the Holy Ghost is just another manifestation of the one God with a different name and therefore denying the trinitarian nature of God. This is contrary to the Bible which clearly shows that the Spirit is a distinct person, and even more than this He is the third person of the Godhead. That the Spirit is such is taught in passages like Acts 5 where it is said that Ananias lied to the Holy Ghost and therefore had lied, according to verse 4, “… unto God.” Not only does this reveal that the Spirit is God, but that He can be lied to shows that He is a person; you can’t lie to a mere energy or force.