This article analyzes the ecocritical insights in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Cake (2003). The main analysis will mainly concentrate on the appropriation of natural elements in the novel. This appropriation includes the anthropomorphic qualities inserted into the novel’s textual fabric. The anthropomorphic features are the human qualities or characteristics given to animals and inanimate things. I will focus on how the anthropomorphic features help us to understand the function of nature in ecocritical contexts.
In works by writers from Crèvecoeur to Wendell Berry, John Muir to Aldo Leopold, Rachel Carson to Leslie Silko, Mary Austin to Edward Abbey, he examines enduring environmental themes such as the dream of relinquishment, the personification of the nonhuman, attentiveness to environmental cycles, a devotion to place, and a prophetic awareness of possible ecocatastrophe. At the center of this study we find an image of Walden as a quest for greater environmental awareness, an impetus and guide for Buell as he develops a new vision of environmental writing and seeks a new way of conceiving the relation between human imagination and environmental actuality in the age of industrialization” (The Environmental Imagination — Lawrence Buell | Harvard
It is a critical mode that looks at the representation of nature and landscape in texts and informs human perceptions and their modifications seeking to create awareness. Cheryll Glotfelty in her Introduction to The Ecocriticism Reader published in 1996 defines ecocriticism as the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment(xix). Ecocritics investigate the underlying ecological values, human perception of wilderness, and how it has changed through the times along with the representation of environmental issues in literature. Literature, the very reflection of life , a medium that sketches the cultural fabric and the ethos of the society
The way individual actors focus their attention is strongly influenced by their environmental stimuli, as actors are part of multiple social networks, cultures and structures. The situational fit between the institutional logic and environmental characteristics determine an actor’s identity, goals and schemas guiding social interaction. This perspective takes a rather instrumental view on rationality, emphasising on the role of personal interests enabling a variety of cognitive orientation rooted through multiple networks and structures (Lounsbury, 2008). Lounsbury (2001) highlighted the role of collective social movement in the creation new institutional logics. The authors showed how the ecological movement SEAC helped in building upon a recycling industry and the diffusion across American universities.
Ecocriticism: a Survey Abstract Ecocriticism is a literary critical branch emerging in the late 1970s attempted to explore the relationship between literature and environment. It attempts to reread major canonical literature by applying ecocentric and ecosystem related concepts to the same. The basic approach is to try to read literary works from the perspective of nature. It analyses human culture by positing it in comparison to the history of the natural world. The ecocritics are enthusiastically concerned over certain issues, such as: the role of the physical setting of a literary work; the metaphor of land or place; the connection between ecosystem and ecological literature.
Introduction Ecocriticism Ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment. Just as feminist criticism examines language and literature from a gender and equality perspective, and Marxist criticism brings forward an awareness of modes of production and economic class to its reading of texts, ecocriticism takes an earth-centered approach to literary studies. The similarity of each field of ecocriticism is the assumption that the ideas and structures of desire which govern the interactions between humans and their natural environment are of central importance. Robert Frost and Ecocriticism According to Zhang (2008), Robert Frost is one of the most important poets in the 20th century American literature. Frost has left us a legacy of fine poetry and his nature lyrics form a great proportion of it.
The authors offer the values-beliefs- norms theory of eco concern and behavior, which predicts support for action in relation to difficulty or costs of implementing policies. This theory suggests personal values influence general beliefs toward the environment, which further shape beliefs about consequences of eco change on the focus of those values. Employing the norm activation model calls up the question of risk and self-efficacy: this model suggests a person’s specific beliefs about threats to valued eco objects (places, wildlife, pollution, etc) influence perceptions about abilities to reduce threats to those valued objects, which further stipulates norms about taking any action. The findings found in his national U.S. survey: 77% supported government regulation of carbon dioxide as a pollutant and shift in subsidies from fossil fuel industries. 54% supported a gas guzzler tax, but overall 78% opposed a general gas tax.
Ecocriticism is one of the significant theories in literature which helps to understand the relationship between literature and physical environment. The interpretation of ecocriticism or environmental criticism takes different shape in American literature and British literature. In the name of ‘ecocriticism’ American literature celebrates nature whereas British Literature on the other used the term ‘green studies’ to focuses on the threats and dangers of nature. Anthropocentricism is the philosophical view of nature from human-centered by rejecting
In relation to social-ecological systems, this conceptual understanding incorporates the idea of adaptation, learning, self-organization, and general ability to persist disturbance (Pisano, 2012). This would indicate that social-ecological resilience is all about people and nature as interdependent systems (Folke et al., 2006). Here becomes plausible that it is irrational to separate the ecological and social elements and to try to explain them independently, even for analytical purposes. Resilience has a linking role to understand the factors that enable households to protect their livelihoods from the adverse consequences of change such as climate variability (Speranza et al., 2014). Essentially, social-ecological resilience system captures driving factors that enable functioning of households under adverse conditions.