Sanity is a cozy Lie: From the perspective of R.D. Laing In his book ‘The Divided Self’ , R.D Laing aims to make ‘madness and the process of going mad understandable.’ While doing so, he puts sanity and madness on the same spectrum. He articulates that the degree of sanity or madness is dependent upon the relationship between the two parties. Understanding sanity in such a construct, the concept of sanity itself can be questioned. This paper substantiates that sanity is merely a façade by analyzing Laing’s text, ‘The existential-phenomenological foundations of understanding psychosis.’ R.D Laing wrote extensively on mental illness, and through his writings, his aversion towards psychopathology could be easily sensed.
The main theorist behind the psychodynamic approach is Sigmund Freud. ‘Psychodynamic theorists look for the causes of behaviour in a dynamic interplay of motivational forces that often conflict with one another. They also suggest that many of these motivational determinants of behaviour are unconscious’ (Holt N., Bremner A., Sutherland E. et al. 2015 p.628). Psychodynamics and psychoanalysis looks at the ways in which the unconscious mind influences our behaviour.
Even though many divergent psychodynamic theories exist, they all stress unconscious motivations and desires, in addition to the importance of childhood experiences in shaping their personalities. Freud also proposed there were ways that we dealt with those theories called defense mechanisms. He believed we must learn to deal with the anxiety that comes from sources in the external world and conflict within one’s own mind. In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, Freud established a method that he called psychoanalysis and he used it to treat mental disorders. He shaped his theory of psychoanalysis by observing his patients.
Though there are certain means by which the human mind can be analysed, most of its unconscious domains are impenetrable. Freud developed his Psychoanalysis as a means to understand the relation between the somatic reality of the senses and language. He again postulated that the basic reason for hysteria n individuals is the result of Oedipus complex, an absence of the resolution of childhood sexuality. Freud thus makes his clinical theory a critique of society and culture. Freud’s theory of society and culture are diametrically opposed to Kant’s theory of the progressive rationalization and consequent freedom and maturity of the individual.
This theory is highly deterministic and makes Freud one of the first thinkers to apply deterministic principals to those considered abnormal." Freud insisted on treating [abnormalities] as behavior for which it is meaningful to seek an explanation by searching for causes in terms of the mental states of the individual concerned" (Thornton). Freud would often find underlying problems in an individual due to the slip of the tongue or pen. He also gathers information through obsessive behaviors and dreams. This is possible through his theory that these subconscious activities are determined by hidden causes in a person's mind.
Sigmund Freud (1894, 1896) stated that “Defense mechanisms are psychological strategies that are unconsciously used to protect a person from anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings”. We use defense mechanisms to protect ourselves from feelings of anxiety or guilt, which arise because we feel threatened, or because our id or superego becomes too demanding. They are not under our conscious control, and are non-voluntarist. Karen Horney (1940s) "developed her mature theory in which individuals cope with the anxiety produced by feeling unsafe, unloved, and undervalued by disowning their spontaneous feelings and developing elaborate strategies of defense. “Coping mechanisms are used to manage an external situation that is creating problems for an
In 19th century, Sigmund Freud discovered the psychoanalysis theory that has constructed a foundation about understanding the relationship between preconscious, conscious and unconscious minds later (Freud, 1904). From a psychodynamic point of view, Freud confident that human personality is dominant by the unconscious parts of our personality those we neither have responsiveness nor power over it; besides, Freud also discover a personality model to explain the connection of the minds by using id (unconscious), ego (conscious) and superego (preconscious) (Feldman, 2010). Freud (1923/1960), Freud used his personality structural model as an analogy to explain human mind where id represents our pleasure principle; ego represents our reality principle;
It's a method that he hoped would help his patients, in a way, understand themselves and makes them understand how they interact and behave in the world. Freud's theory is that our actions whether it is accidental and or unpredictable, is in fact, the unconscious doing. Looking at the earlier texts of psychoanalysis, it is very much concerned by the language and meaning; it is the innermost important aspect within sociology and psychoanalysis. The human language focuses on the imperfections of human interactions and communications. These imperfections from human can be in the form of parapraxis, or better known as Freudian slips; a human action made by the unconscious, which fascinated Freud.
The psychological concept of the uncanny as something that is strangely familiar, rather than just mysterious, was perhaps first fixed by Sigmund Freud in his essay Das Unheimliche. The meaning of the uncanny is something fearful and frightening, and as such it has been neglected in the history of aesthetics, It is basically depended on aesthetics or beauty, the principles of beauty, for instance, if I ask you about my jacket is it nice or not? You maybe tell me yes it is nice “I love it “or maybe no “I hate it “, according what? It is according to your feeling or emotion, your principles of beauty. But the big question is what the relationship between aesthetics and the uncanny is?
It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the author, that a literary work is a manifestation of the author 's own neuroses. One may psychoanalyze a particular character within a literary work, but it is usually assumed that all such characters are projections of the author 's psyche.“ (Delahoyde). Psychoanalytic criticism in literature deals with psyche that is basically human personality that consist of id, ego and superego. Id operates as instinctive and primitive element of mind, it refers to instincts and is unconscious part of our psyche (personality). The Ego refers to I, the realistic part of mind and Superego as something above , integrates learned morals and social rules in human mind, it is a conscious part.