Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective on self and society based on the ideas of George H. Mead (1934), Charles H. Cooley (1902) and W. I. Thomas (1931). Mead’s theory of the social self is based on the perspective that the self emerges from social interactions, such as observing and interacting with others, responding to others’ opinions about
Introduction This writing is an academic writing for SSF2063 Social inquiry subject. We need to choose a relevant theory of social sciences and explain social phenomenon that happen around us with the selected theory. Introduction of Theory In this writing we have been decided to choose Symbolic Interaction Theory (SIT). SIT is a theory that been develop by George Herbert Mead. This theory is about how people understand the symbol and interpret the meaning of the symbol.
He writes that symbols becomes associated with human interests, purposes, ends and means, aspirations and ideals. Symbols are social and cultural dynamic systems, shedding and gathering meaning over time He discusses his field work to explain the basic symbolic processes of human life in pre-industrial (liminal) and industrial (liminoid) cultures. In this process he states his agreements and disagreements with a wide range of anthropologists and other social theorists. He quotesVan Gennep’s viewpoint that liminal and liminality are derived from the Latin “limen,” which means “threshold”- selected by Van Gennep to apply “transition between”. liminality- an extended liminal phase in the initiation rites of tribal societies is frequently marked by the physical separation of the ritual subjects
Symbolic Interactionism George Mead (1863-1931) George Herbert Mead is one of the key developers of the symbolic interactionism. This is a micro-level perspective based on self and society. It states that human behavior is influenced by meanings and definitions that are created through interactions with others in society. This is the ongoing use of a language and gestures in suspense to how the other will react in a conversation. Within the George Mead’s theory of Mind, Self and Society, he said that the self is made up of 2 components: the “me” represents expectations, attitudes and learnt behaviors of others in society.
Especially, when family members need help adjusting to a new set of individuals or familiar attitudes, goals, and behaviors. Most importantly, incorporating a therapeutic system which supports a family system Minuchin’s Structural Family Therapy consisting of four steps: questions about the presenting issues occurring within the family structure, assist family members to perceive how their interactions execute through present problems, explore past problems, and emphasis on the interactions among the adults and their perspective. “The structural family therapy system focuses on the needs and changes of the family system and the solutions for a family system with a brief therapeutic approach (ten sessions) to be precise” (Helm,
o A social order of dominance within the group. o A style of dressing and communicating. o Community demands to which every group member must obey. o A set of prohibition (forbidden acts that group members should avoid under risk of extreme punishment). • Author also gave some précised and accurate idea on socio-centrism by these examples: o Folkways were written by William Graham Sumner, who was one of the founders of discipline of sociology.
Among the many definitions of sociology that exist, there are two that I find most appealing for this paper. First, sociology has been defined as the study of the development, structure, and functioning of human society. It has also been said to be the study of social problems. The sociological thought was in essence a brainchild of eighteenth- century philosophy, history and political economy. This period was known for posing critical sociological issues without the possibility of their resolutions.
Social Interaction When studying sociology social interaction is defined as the dynamic sequence, which occurs in social actions between groups or individuals, which alter their actions and reactions based on the actions of their interaction partner. Erving Goffman created social interaction; it is also known as microsociology. Simply stated social interaction is the process through which people react to the people in their environment. Social interaction involves the people’s acts and their responses. For instance, a quick chat with a friend seems moderately trivial.
Thus by comparing ourselves to other we re-evaluate our own identity and ultimately achieve affirmation. It is important however to realise that social comparison can then take place in either upward or downward comparison. (). Social media is in essence driven by social comparison. Balick claims that this is the nature of the social network, as in many ways it “aids and “abets a superficial way of judging both others and the self.”” (Balick).
At the end of the 1980's, the scholars applied the term "auto-ethnography" to work that explored the interplay of personally engaged people and cultural beliefs, experiences and systems. Nowadays, however, the meanings and applications of auto-ethnography have developed so that precise definition is difficult. According to Adams et. al "Auto-ethnography is a research method that uses a researcher's personal experience to describe or critique cultural beliefs, practices, and experiences... Shows people in the process of figuring out what to do, how to live, and the meaning of their struggles'." Ellingson and Ellis (2008) see auto-ethnography as a social constructionist project that rejects binary opposition between the researcher and the researched, objectivity and subjectivity, process and outcome, self and others, and the personal and the political.