The richness and strangeness of India had something in store for all the Britishers who resided in India during the Raj. It induced an experience of sublime vertigo in the colonizing minds, an intellectual challenge for the learned and a unique stimulus to the Britishers possessing a literary bent of mind. During this period many Britishers represented India in varied genres. Many British men and women represented India in their poems. This research project has incisively illustrated that colonial British-Indian poets represented India in multiple ways in their poems.
After the Indian Rebellion, there were many shifts in policies, acts and leadership of the remaining British rulers that remained in colonial India. Radio and speeches frolicked a huge part in spreading the movement to even peasant village members. By the mid1930s, the approval of the anti-colonial movement started to overpower the small amount of British influence that remained in India and the Indian princes were gaining both militaristic and political power. Since Indians had a sample from the British in education, military, economy, and government for centuries, the upper-class Indian princes and leaders had the knowledge to run and establish their own independent state. After about twenty years of message between British and Indian officials, India would become a distinct nation in 1947.
However, the brutal honesty of his writing and the sentiments his writing evokes in any self righteous Indian are incomparable to other writings by authors writing about the same cities and the same people. Through Naipaul’s description of India’s ruins in An Area of Darkness, one sees a deeply pessimistic tenor- where he describes India as a land of ruins and decadence, where destruction, annihilation, despair and dereliction was everywhere; but despite it all, very few can dissuade this Naipaulian area of darkness that India had become post the end of colonialism in the 1960s. What is most distinctive about his writing is that his sense of philosophy that adds a much required psychological take on all he sees. In India: A Million Mutinies Now this philosophical melancholy continues and provides the reader a deeper insight into Naipaul’s India. But with the progression of years we also see a progression of ideology, by the time Naipaul visits Calcutta nearly twenty six years later while writing India: A Million Mutinies Now, Naipaul himself tries to analyse the pessimistic lens he wore when he visited Calcutta in 1962.
‘A Passage to India’ can similarly mirror Said’s vision of Orientalism, through perpetuating the control of the Anglo- Indians that strengthen their presence and the establishment of the empire. Consequently this suggests that, the English- Indian relationship is less about understanding the native culture but focused on controlling and dominating it through the British
A Passage to India begins and ends by posing the question of whether it is possible for an Englishman and an Indian to ever be friends, at least within the context of British colonialism. Forster uses this question as a framework to explore the general issues of Britain’s political control of India on a more personal level, through the friendship between Aziz and Fielding. At the beginning of the novel, Aziz is scornful of the English, wishing only to consider them comically or ignore them completely. Yet the intuitive connection Aziz feels with Mrs. Moore in the mosque opens him to the possibility of friendship with Fielding. Through the first half of the novel, Fielding and Aziz represent a positive model of liberal humanism:
(A Passage to India 5). In evaluating such a description, the reader is deliberately shifted from exotic and colorful narratives about British India which featured picturesque and exalted discourses about the colonial exchange. But the description is still largely Eurocentric. As Sara Suleri asserts, it is a mundane geographical appropriation of the colonized land, rendered as a hollow space through which the imperial dialogue is articulated in its imperial ideologies. It is this striking feature of the novel that locates it on the cusp between colonial and postcolonial narrative, in Suleri’s words: “the touristic experience of colonialism is deglamourised into mathematical computations of how literally banal the exotic may be” (45).
The Indian Diaspora began during the colonial period when the British Empire had spread its tentacles round the globe and the red stain of imperialism had leaked into diverse land masses. Indian labourers and then entrepreneurs followed the Union Jack from the Caribbean islands to Fiji and from Canada to South Africa. Thus were established ‘little India’s’ now inhabited by second-and third-generation persons of Indian origins, who the Indian Government today have labeled Pravasi Bharatis (Non- Resident Indians). Among this group are also the diasporics of more recent postcolonial origins. There are millions of non-resident Indians scattered round the world with considerable economic and political clout and an awareness of this has probably
INTRODUCTION: A Passage to India is a 1984 British period, drama film written and directed by David Lean. The play is based on the novel of the same name by E. M Forster. This was the final film of Lean 's career, and the first feature-film he had directed in fourteen years, since Ryan’s Daughter in 1970. A Passage to India received eleven nominations at the Academy Awards. In the film, Adela Quested, a young Englishwoman, travels to India in the late 1920s to visit her fiancé, a British magistrate posted in a small town; her traveling companion is his mother Mrs. Moore.
In E. M. Forster’s A Passage to India the serious mistakes the British make when interacting with the Indians reveals the negative the British had on Indian society during their occupation of India. The novel presents various scenarios of British and Indians interacting and then gives the most logical outcome of that scenario. Before delving into the novel’s representation of what was happening to India at this time it is best to first take a quick look at what was occurring in the real India. A real interaction can be found in an article by Forester depicting two different interactions an Indian man had on a train. The first time the Indian man comes across a British man some words are exchanged between them, but on the second encounter
She is very well disillusioned about reality but as she travels past the magnificent fortress of Asirgarh, Mrs. Moore realizes that there is more to India - to the cosmos-than "the undying worm." Mrs. Moore seems to be recognizing at this point that reality is intangible, inexplicable, indescribable and if we understand India as a kind of comprehensive symbol of the fundamental reality that underlies all civilizations placed closer to the contradictory realities of the earth then things are neither all-good nor all-bad, but only there, to be seen, passed, and remembered, like the caves, Bombay, and Asirgarh. The names of the three parts of the novel do not only summarize the central moment of the period they deal with: they are also symbols of the three main Indian seasons. “A Passage to India” is built around three parts: “Mosque”, “Caves” and “Temple” which all are settings. Mosque reminds us of the major event of the first part: the encounter between Doctor Aziz and Mrs Moore.