They die of pneumonia, malaria, diarrhoea and other diseases. Children from rural and poorer households remain disproportionately affected. Children from the poorest 20% of households are nearly twice as likely to die before their fifth birthday as children in the richest 20%. Maternal mortality is a key indicator of health inequity. Maternal mortality is a health indicator that shows the wide gaps between rich and poor, both between and within countries.
INTRODUCTION Giardia Lamblia is a protozoan parasite. About 200 million people had infected in the world but this value just an estimate since that only 500 000 of new cases reported in a year. Previously, higher prevalence of occurance in the developing countries (20% and 30%) compare to developed countries (2% and 5%) (Wilson, 1984; Farthing, 1994).. Malaysia was considered as the developing country. Giardia lamblia may infect human through ingesting of it cysts. Hence, people with low hygiene and contaminated water supply have high risk of being infected.
Smallpox affected all levels of society. In the 18th century in Europe, 400,000 people died annually of smallpox, and one-third of the survivors went blind. The symptoms of smallpox, appeared suddenly and the sequelae were destructive. The case-fatality rate varied from 20% to 60% and left most survivors with disfiguring scars. The case-fatality rate in infants was even higher, approaching 80% in London and 98% in Berlin during the late
Even dating back to America’s first beginnings there has always been problems with illnesses. In 1633-1634 there was a case of smallpox that was brought into America from European settlers. People had symptoms of high fever, chills, severe back pain, rashes, and even death. Because of this seventy percent of the Native Americans population decreased. In 1918 there out a breakout of the Spanish flu.
The Irish emigrated for a better life away from the famine. Approximately 1.3 million of the population was estimated to have emigrated in the prompt famine period, with the despair and depression that trailed extended the decline until the subsequent half of the 20th century. These migrants predominantly ended up in mostly North America, and some in Australia and Britain. “Between 1845 and 1855, 1.5 million people left for good. In 1845, emigration was at the pre-famine rate of 50,000 per year.
If untreated, people still can die from the plague, which in the United States occurs in the wild(“Plague Occurs”). The last urban outbreak of the plague in the United States occurred in Los Angeles in 1924 to 1925(“Plague Occurs”). Europe’s population went down quick because of the plague and it impacted tons of people(Dobson 11). 60 percent of Europe’s entire population , 50 million were killed(Benedictow). The plague impacted parts of Asia today and people are being killed by the disease.
Melanoma is a cancer of the melanocytes, the cell found in the skin's epidermis that produces melanin. Melanoma most commonly occurs on the trunk or lower extremities. While malignant melanoma is less common than non-melanoma skin cancer , it is considered the most deadly form of skin cancer. This is because melanoma accounts for approximately 75% of deaths associated with skin cancer. In 2013, it is estimated that 76,690 people will be diagnosed with melanoma and 9,480 people will die of melanoma in the United States.
The 19th century brought tremendous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but Charles Booth’s investigations between 1886 and 1903 into the Life and Labor of the people in London revealed that approximately thirty percent of the population still lived in poverty. The average number of persons to an inhabited house in London and its neighboring urban districts increased compared with the numbers in 1891. By the end of the century, the overcrowding in London was almost thirty percent or sixteen per cent of the whole population. This happened mainly because quarters had been destroyed in accordance with the slum clearances. As a result the unhoused moved to other districts.
In the pre – vaccine era, diphtheria was common, with annual reported case of 125,000 and annual death of 10,000 being reported in the united State of America11. Invention of an effective vaccine against diphtheria and following the introduction of mass immunization, the incidence of diphtheria fell to such an extent that at the beginning of the 1980’s many countries in the world are progressing towards the elimination of diphtheria.12 ‘The number of reported cases of diphtheria in Nigeria has been declining. Reported cases from Nigeria were 5,039 in 1989, 3995 in 2000, 2468 in 2001, 790 in 2002, and 312 in 2006.’13 There are few reports in clinical diphtheria in Nigeria, but most of these are old reports corroborating the possible declining prevalence of diphtheria in Nigeria, however we reported 5 cases over a year period in 2009 with 40% mortality and speculate on the possible resurgence of the disease.14,15 2.2.2 PERTUSIS Pertusis also known as whooping cough is a respiratory tract infection characterized by a paroxysmal cough. The most common causative organism is Bordetella
Over one million people die from mosquito-borne disease every year. In recent years mosquito-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India and Nepal. Many of these particularly Dengue Fever, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Malaria occur on annual basis causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Adding to this list ,Zika-Virus has emerged out as a new public health threat. According to the Epidemiology and Disease Control Division (EDCD), Nepal , the mosquito linked to the spread of Zika in the Americas, Aedes aegypti, is already present in Kathmandu and other major cities.