Hypothesis: If one-day pinto bean seedlings are soaked in a water solution, 1% NaCl solution, and 3% NaCl solution, the seedlings exposed to higher sodium concentrations will have decreased cellular respiration rates. Treatments: This experiment involved three treatments and a control. The goal of the experiment was to see how different levels of NaCl affect the rates of cellular respiration in day-old pinto bean seedlings. In this experiment the rate of cellular respiration was measured by the amount of CO2 in ppm per gram of substance produced by a given treatment group or the control over the course of ten minutes. CO2 levels were measured using a CO2 sensor.
Salinity dramatically impedes plant growth, leading to a decrease in crop yield and quality. This occurs due to two mechanisms: osmotic stress and ion toxicity. Osmotic stress occurs because saline soils have high osmotic potential, so plants which grow in saline soils have difficulty taking up water, resulting in low cell turgor and slow shoot growth. Ion toxicity occurs because saline water moves up the transpiration stream, causing Na+ and Cl- to accumulate
Both droughts and floods carry severe consequences as eroding topsoil, flooding rice fields and filling in irrigation canals will constrain food production. It would also cause more money being pumped in to recover from the losses of building infrastructure etc.For example, in 1979, a flood caused India to suffer $2
The main cause of food insecurity in Africa is the inability to of citizens to gain access to food due to poverty. Many factors have contributed to this problem which leads to an increase in the prevalence of food insecurity (Mwaniki, 2015, p. 1). Factors contributing to food insecurity include: • Drought and other extreme weather events. In recent times it has been seen that major food crisis has been a result of “drought or extreme weather conditions’’, this impacted negatively on crop harvests which in turn caused a food shortage and an increase in food prices (Harvesthelp, 2012). • Pests, livestock diseases and other agricultural problems.
Nutrient pollution coming from agricultural runoff and other fertilizers allows for the growth of species that upset the balance of the ecosystem such as Cattail, harmful algae bloom, and duckweed. The sulfur in the agricultural fertilizers leads to accumulation of toxic mercury in fish, birds, and mammals. Also, exotic animals or invasive species displaced native and threatens to disrupt the ecosystem balance. The purpose of this experiment is to determine how the water quality affects the Everglades ecosystem and how water pollution impacts different species. Urbanization is a big threat that contributes to poor water quality in water pollution.
To be specific, 70% of fresh water goes to agriculture and this can increase up to 90% in drier regions (Gilman). With that said, weakened water supply is deemed to influence agriculture worldwide. Moreover, in Larry Gilman’s, Agriculture: Vulnerability to Climate Change, he discusses the vital effect climate change as a whole can have on agriculture. He specifically mentions the effect water can have on food production stating, “As of 2002, about 30 countries were facing chronic water shortages, a number expected to exceed 50 by 2050. Water shortages will impact both health and agriculture directly” (Gilman).
Land pollution causes the land’s productivity and potential to decline to such a level that the purpose of utilising lands for building infrastructures, housings, services, agriculture, forestry and many more for the development of human being are no longer achievable (Prabhakar, 2012). Land pollution are resulted by some sources which are deforestation, mining and construction activities. Deforestation appears to be the major concern as once the land is converted into dry lands, it can hardly be made fertile again. Those areas inevitably end up as waste lands. Mining requires the removal of topsoil containing valuable organic matters.
The desertification results in unproductive farmland which increases the pressure to produce food even more. Desertification and climate change in drier areas causes severe water shortages and even droughts. Western culture has created an increase in urbanisation, population and industrialisation,
Plants experience various abiotic stresses of low or elevated temperature, salt, drought, and heavy metals, as well as biotic pathogen and insect attack and sometimes simultaneously. These stresses have significant negative impact on survival, biomass production and crop yield resulting reduced productivity of crops (Amudha et al., 2011; Upchurch, 2008). In present scenario, population of the world is increasing at alarming rate and it is expected to reach 6 billion by year 2050. Farmlands are diminishing worldwide and food productivity is decreasing due to abiotic stresses. To meet the food necessities of such large population, we need a strategies to increase the production of the important crops such as cereals, pulses, etc., by developing the stress tolerant crops (Mahajan et al., 2005).
Soil is also being affected by Agriculture and affecting family farms leading to high suicides and contaminated soils. Farmers are trying to grow crops in areas that aren’t usually suitable for growing, and applying toxic pesticides and fertilizer to help the crops grow. Farmers are going out of business due to lack of money, getting sick from the toxic stuff companies are giving farmers. Now we are seeing more industrial farming and causing more harm for us and the