After we had fought the brutal, decimating Civil War, white supremacy in the caused our nation to take two steps further than we were even before the War. Obviously, hearing this, sounds like extreme conflict. Ironically enough though, this major step back in history was called, “The Compromise of 1877.” Unfortunately, this “compromise” did way more harm than good for African Americans. The Compromise of 1877 was a corrupt agreement between three powerful southern states and Rutherford B. Hayes that led to him being elected President and the stripping away from African American rights. After the Civil War, “Lives of black slaves had improved greatly and there was hope for emancipation of slaves in those states.
The ⅗ Compromise allowed our country to ratify the US Constitution in 1790 but also pointed out the great flaw of slavery in our nation and opened our eyes to the reality of slavery and how the slaves weren’t treated like ⅗ of a person at all. In 1783 the Continental Congress first brought up the idea of how slaves should be
Slavery developed into a highly addressed and matter during the Revolutionary era, which resulted from important political figures such as Thomas Paine, and more importantly by the Revolutionary War. As the war began it became clear that in order to obtain victories the British would need to employ uncommon tactics to recruit more soldiers. The British army did this by offering slaves liberty in exchange for their service to the British army. The colonies, however had multiple tactics in gaining more soldiers as well, such as buying the slaves’ freedom or by paying them to fight in the war. Slavery also during the Revolution resulted in individuals beginning to question slavery and whether it was morally acceptable to continue its practice.
The Spanish were the first to use African slaves in the New World on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola with the first African slaves arriving in Hispaniola in 1501. By 1750, slavery was established as a legal institution in all of the 13 colonies and contributed to almost five percent of the England 's revenues. The enslavement of humans and the denial of basic human rights to slaves has been the basis of several wars such as the Haitian revolution, the American Civil War and numerous slave rebellions in America. The main reason behind the American Civil War was, indeed, slavery. The Republican Party in America was determined to end slavery, whereas many leaders in the Southern states wanted slavery to continue or they threatened to secede from the Union.
The South mainly used slaves for work on plantations, and the North used them for various tasks like housekeeping and working in factories. Many people in the North started to oppose slavery, and by the late 1700’s many states in the North had outlawed it. Slavery went on in the South for almost another century until it was finally banned. This did not make free blacks free to live like everybody else, though. Free blacks in the North were not very free because of their limited freedoms in politics, economics, and in their social lives.
The Seek of Freedom “Freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed”. Freedom has been the key element in the United States since the country was built. However, the slavery was being excluded while the white people were celebrating their independence from the Great Britain. As Martin Luther King, an anti-slavery leader, once said that freedom needed to gain by the oppressed, the slaves and the antislavery were bonded together to fight. As a result, the Civil War broke out.
The issue of abolishing slavery was left out of the Declaration of Independence because in 1776 there was already action being taken for slaves and it is stated in Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation on Slave Emancipation (1775). Earl of Dunmore, John Murray, a royal governor and a Scottish aristocrat, wrote the Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation on Slave Emancipation, it was during a war and it grew out of Dunmore’s efforts to counter an impending attack on his capital of Williamsburg by the patriot military in the spring of 1775, when he threatened to free and arm slaves to defend the cause of royal government. During the time he was retreating, he was gathering slaves. His proclamation was commanding Virginians to support the crown or be judged. Traitors now offered freedom to all slaves and indentured servants belonging to rebels and able to bear arms for the crown.
The fits have subsided, but alas are not completely gone. I guess we all have our burdens to bare. As for the Dutch Quakers, they continue to concentrate on the abolishment of slavery. They have even taken steps to remove members from leadership roles who were found holding, buying or selling slaves (History of the Society of Friends in America, pg 245) Abolishment of slavery is quite the uphill battle, but they seemed more determined than ever to see it
This large scale and lengthy slave trade brought significant political, cultural, and economic change to the societies involved. To begin with, the Atlantic slave trade has had a substantial influence on American, European, and African politics. First, During the decline of the slave trade in the 19th century, there was a large push in Europe and America to ban slavery and end the Atlantic slave trade. Much of Europe quickly banned such practices in the early 1800s, but the road for reform was a much longer and more difficult in the USA. Most Northern states opposed slavery, while most Southern states favoured it.
The abolitionists decided not to press for an end to slavery itself (though some members of the committee wanted total emancipation). Instead they opted to demand the abolition of the slave trade, which seemed more practical and manageable. After all, the bulk of the slave ships left from British ports, and Parliament could regulate or ban the movement of shipping from Britain itself. To persuade Parliament to end the British slave trade, the abolitionists had to win over opinion in both the Commons and the Lords. But they faced resolute opposition from powerful interests in Parliament, especially in the Lords, and in the country at large.
In 1787 the South made sure that a law was passed where no slave would automatically be set free in the circumstances of escaping to a free state (“history.com”). The Slave Acts didn’t stop there, for one was passed in 1793 and then another one in 1850, and these acts of inequity only caused America to delve into a greater tremble that would soon erupt into war (“history.com”). The Fugitive Slave Acts caused a riot among the Northern Abolitionists, because they were detested with the cruelty that those laws imprinted on the lives and hope of all black people. History.com says that “In 1851 a mob of antislavery activists rushed a Boston courthouse and forcibly liberated an escaped slave named Shadrach Minkins from federal custody” (“history.com”). This was not the last rescue either, for the abolitionists stopped at nothing to give slaves the freedom they deserved (“history.com”).
Unfortunately, many more were not so fortunate. Regarding an event 's importance in bringing about the Civil War, the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 it would be a ten if it was on a scale. The Fugitive Slave Act brought more attention to the wrongfulness of slavery and caused an increased problem between the North and the South. Northern whites resented having to be told what to do, by having to capture slaves. The Fugitive Slave Act shed some light on things, it helped to create iconic abolitionists and antislavery orators such as Frederick Douglas and others.
The case that changed it all came in 1857 as in the North people were also angered over the Dred Scott decision as it only widened the political and social gap between the North and South and took the nation only closer to a civil war. Dred Scott was a slave that was taken to a free slave state with his master and lived on the land for a long time to be only returned to Missouri, which was a slave state but his master passed away and Dred Scott decided to sue for his freedom by the help of abolitionist lawyers. Dred Scott claimed he should be free since he had lived on free soil for many years. In 1857, Dred Scott lost due to decision by seven out of nine of Justices on the Supreme Court voted he must be a citizen, so as a non-citizen he could not sue in a federal court and must go back to being a slave. Howard on page 33 states perfectly what this decision was truly meant by stating, “As relates to these States, it is too plain for argument, that they have never been regarded as a part of the people or citizens of the State, nor supposed to possess any political rights which the dominant race might not withhold or grant at their pleasure.” This also inferred that free soil and popular
“Almost overnight, it seemed, an institution that had long been taken for granted came under intense scrutiny and debate: critics questioned its efficacy and morality, proponents rushed to its defense, and thousands of slaves took advantage of wartime turmoil to flee their bondage” (Kolchin 63). It was the begging and near end of slavery. After the war slavery was still practiced and abundant however it was diminishing, even some slave owners decided to let go and free their slaves because all the bloodshed that was caused. Slavery aimed straight at the public and was given much attention. The Revolution constructed new views and ideas about "liberty" and "equality," which established new laws on human rights.
During the Revolutionary War and after the war ended, slavery was still occurring and very popular according to a map adopted from North of Slavery (Leon F. Litwack). The map depicts which states of America, north or south, abolished slavery versus states who continued using the method of slavery. After the war ended in 1783, many slaves were still working and not have been freed. By 1786, the northern states had freed the slaves, while the slaves in the south were not free until 1863 due to the Emancipation Proclamation. The time difference of the release of slaves in the north compared to the south is precisely 77 years.