UNIT ONE: AUSTRALIA POST 1945 CONTEMPORARY ABORIGINAL SPIRITUALITIES • Aboriginal spiritualty as determined by the Dreaming The Dreaming: - The Dreaming is the root of Aboriginal spirituality and is important to every Aboriginal culture and societies. -
Richard Wagamese brings to light the troubles of aboriginals living in Northern Canada in his book Indian Horse. Wagamese demonstrates the maltreatment aboriginals have faced at the hands of the Zhaunagush and their residential schools. The disgusting truth of the treatment of aboriginals in Canada is shown through recovering alcoholic, Saul Indian Horse, who recounts his life from the time he lived in the bush with his native family, the Anishinabeg, to the the time he checked into The New Dawn Treatment Centre. Seen through Saul’s eyes, the Canadian government captures and transports native children to residential schools. Not only are these children stripped from their native way of life, they are placed in an environment that eerily resembles an internment camp.
Aboriginal People and Historical Globalizations Aboriginal People lived in North America. They were the first people to step into North America, but when the European countries tried to find a way to get to Asia by sending explorers, one of them was Christopher Columbus who sailed to find the routes to Asia. When he reached North America, he found the new land where he met the Aboriginals. This was the time of historical globalization. The English people took them and put them in residential school because “it was best for the future of aboriginal people”.
"Reconciliation will not work if it puts a higher value on symbolic gestures rather than the practical needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in areas like health, housing, education and employment." Warren Mundine AO Reconciliation is the action of making one view or belief compatible with another according to the Oxford dictionary of English. The term reconciliation was used as a symbolic gesture in an address made on February 13th 2008 by the former Prime Minister of Australia, Kevin Rudd. Kevin Rudd was the first political figure to speak out and seek reconciliation for the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders after being elected as prime minster in 2007. He spoke out after many generations of mistreated Indigenous Australians that had their rights and equality continuously ignored, but after all that has happened, including the effect of broken families, which still in 2018 have the aftermath of "The stolen generation", there was only one public apology and no compensation for the damages caused to the native people of this country.
Culture is an umbrella term that covers almost every aspects of life. It includes different concepts when viewed from various perspectives. It can be described in individual level as well as communal level, though they are mutually dependent. An individual defines culture at the level of the community he or she follows the patterns of the society in which he or she lives.
The impact of ethnic inequality has been detrimental to indigenous Australians, with the consequences of internal colonialism still affecting them today (text). Loss of language and Dreamtime stories have meant that they have had to rebuild their identity and break free from British oppression by banding together to create stronger communities. Indigenous Australians who live in rural areas of Australia have fewer opportunities when it comes to education, employment, healthcare and housing (text pg. 350). These issues can be once again linked back to the systems that are in place within the country, the way the government approaches these issues in regards to indigenous welfare is problematic. In 2015, the Abbott government supported the decision
Before the European invasion, the local people were nomadic, moving around to hunt and fish. Contact between the two cultures and colonisation had a devastating, life changing effect on aboriginal people, with the introduction of new diseases, government policies and massacres. In 1869, the Victorian board for the protection of aborigines was established. The Governor could order the removal of aboriginal or ‘half caste’ children to reformatory or industrial school.
government started to civilize them and moved to control all aspects of their lives through passing the Indian Act and residential schools. According to Carole Blackburn “although assimilation was the stated goal, in actuality, the Indian Act facilitated the ongoing supervision of aboriginal people as a racially segregated population, marking their externality from the nation and separation from the rights and duties of Canadian citizenship” ( ). Therefore, biology has been used as an ideology to maintain capitalism and used to determine society behavior. In the other words, prejudice, discrimination and racism become the reason that they occupied the subordinate position in the political, economical and ideological relations of Canadian’s society.
A culture of poverty phenomena does exist. The work of Durlauf (2011) supports the culture of poverty phenomena through explaining how the theory of poverty whether it pertains to a family, a community, or a larger society all have one thing in common, a cycle of poverty that has been learned and passed down from generation to generation creating poverty traps. Poverty traps hinder the poor from surpassing values, norms, and learned behaviors that cause people to remain in poverty. The cycle of poverty is generated by many different factors, however, it is not defined by socioeconomic status or by ethnicity. There are situations where individuals live under dire circumstances within the lower socioeconomic status, yet are still able
Why is post colonialism relevant in understanding the phenomena of the Stolen Generation? Post colonialism is a relatively new concept of international relations. It appeared in the 1990s after that of theories of feminism which will be competitively analysed in this case study of the Stolen Generation phenomenon. Post colonialism theory has long played a significant role in literary studies, cultural and anthropological studies but its recent introduction into international relations shows an important theoretical shift.
Although there are over 5000 indigenous communities around the world, the global responsibility to protect the indigenous is not being realized, since Indigenous communities still suffer socio-economical disadvantages, marginalization, discrimination and denial of justice to a certain extent. This is evident throughout the world, in nations such as Australia and Canada, which pride themselves on their nations freedom, equality and safely. Australia despite being a first world nation has immensely failed at protecting it’s indigenous population, most notably it’s Indigenous youth, since over 80% of youth suicides in 2010 were of young Aborigines. Early intervention is the key to protecting Aborigines, as commented by Social Justice Minster,
Canada is a multicultural country. As a lot of people have immigrated to Canada from different parts of the world, they brought some cultural elements of their native culture along with them. These cultural elements have been blended into the mainstream culture of Canada. With so much diverse population, it is natural that people will be ethnocentric.
The indigenous people have a long and proud history, including the rich cultural and spiritual traditions. However, many of these traditions have been changed or even disappeared after the arrival of the European settlers. Forced introduction of European culture and values, Aboriginal community, indigenous land being deprived, and the imposition of a period of governance outside the pattern of the beginning of a cycle of social, physical and spiritual destruction. You can see the effects of today. Some of the effects include poverty, poor health, and drug abuse.