Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs

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Abraham Maslow was a humanist who concerned about the dignity and worth of individuals. Maslow formulated a theory about human behavior in terms of a hierarchy of five general needs. The theory attempts to show how the healthy personality develops over time and how that personality comes to manifest itself in motivated behavior. Maslow’s theory states that people have a pyramid hierarchy of needs that they will satisfy from bottom to top. Figure 2.1: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Source: Kreitner; (2007) 2.2.1.1 Physiological Needs: The most basic needs in Maslow’s hierarchy and consisted needs that must be satisfied person to survive including food, water, oxygen, water, sleep and so on. In the workplace, such needs are reflected in the individual’s…show more content…
Alderfer’s model agreed with Maslow that individuals tend to move up from existence, through relatedness to growth needs as they are satisfied lower-level needs. However, Alderfer did not believe that one level of needs had to be satisfied before the next level need would emerge. All of the needs could be simultaneously active for a given individual. 2.2.3 McClelland’s Need Theory Another well-known need theory is the learned needs theory developed by David McClelland. McClelland’s (1961) theory was based on the individual’s need for achievement, affiliation and power. He believed that needs were learned or acquired from everyone and motivate them to pursue a particular goals. 2.2.3.1 Need for Achievement- n Ach Need for achievement defined as the behavior directed toward competition with a standard of excellence. Throughout the series of study, McClelland identified four characteristics of high need of achievers: 1) A strong desire to assume personal responsibility for performing a task or solving a problem. 2) A tendency to set moderately difficult achievement goals and to take calculated…show more content…
He conducted a series of research surveys to several hundred accountants and engineers that describe specific situations where they felt exceptionally bad about their jobs and also describe where they felt exceptionally good about their jobs. On the basic of his study, the theory explains the factors that motivate employees by identifying their individual needs and desires. He reported that employees tend to describe satisfying experiences in terms of factors that were intrinsic to the content of job itself. These factors were called ‘motivators’ which included opportunity to experience achievement, receive recognition, work itself, take responsibility, and experience advancement and growth. On the contrary, the factors that lead to dissatisfaction is called ‘hygiene’ factors, such as company policies, salary, job security, working conditions and

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