1. Introduction Plants are the main source of food and medicine of humans since the times of ancient throughout the world. Many synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) are known to have side effects causing liver damage. The expensive treatments, adverse effects of several allopathic drugs and development of resistance to existing drugs have forced us to look back into nature as a resource for therapeutics to a wide variety of human ailments. Therefore there is a need for isolation and characterization of natural antioxidant having fewer side effects which can be used in foods or medicinal materials to replace damage causing synthetic antioxidants .
Free radicals and Relative oxygen species have been involved in the initiation of various human diseases including atherosclerosis, metabolic disorders, heart disease, cellular ageing, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthiritis, malaria, cancer and HIV/AIDS (Alho and Leinonen, 1999; Odukoya 2005). Various major Phenolic compounds such as catechin, quercetin, narigin, rutin, caffeic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid and chlorogenic acid are veryuseful and significant plant phytoconstituent. (Qusti &al, 2010). Natural herbal plants products are commonly known to produce different important antioxidant substances which have ability to protect the body against oxidative stress and cellular oxidation damage caused by free radicals (Ozsoy et al, 2008). All medicinal plant requires a detailed knowledge prior to its use because, the pharmaceutical value is absolutely dependent on the quality of the plant material.
The detection is at 215nm. The phenolic acid and flavonoids present in the black gram are analyzed on the basis of retention time and it is compared with the standard chromatogram of gallic acid and rutine Verification of model Using the second order polynomial model of RSM, optimal conditions required for the extraction of total phenolic content from black gram was estimated. Under the certain optimal conditions, the model equation was verified for the predicted response values. The experimental and the predicted values of the TPC were checked to verify the validity of the model. Experimental runs were replicated under the optimized
Because tannins are acidic and can be converted to phenolic salts by deprotonation of the –OH group when a base is added, it is possible to separate the tannins from caffeine. During the 2nd extraction process, when dichloromethane was added to the solution 2 immiscible layers were formed which are a upper layer containing the aqueous solution and a lower layer containing the organic solution. Dichloromethane is denser than water The 2nd extraction process was done for 3 times to maximize the yield of caffeine. The separatory funnel was slowly swirled so that intractable emulsion would not be produced and the product recovery would not be reduced. After the 2nd extraction process the lower layer part of the mixture is collected and the upper layer is discarded which contained tannins and sugars which composed of monosaccharides glucose and fructose and a disaccharide sucrose.
It is used in treating urinary complaints, impotence, boils in babies and older children and diarrhoea. It is believed that total sterility in women can be done by eating the new leaves of this plant each day for three complete days, then waiting a fortnight and repeating the treatment again. A paste of the young fronds can be used to treat abscesses and fungal skin infections, esp ringworm, and to stop bleeding.The plant has components of essential oil, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Blechnum%20orientale 3. Bamboo Pit
The appearance of dark green colour indicated the presence of tannins (Cuilel, 1994). Test for steroids 1g of both extracts were weighed and placed in test tubes. The extracts were dissolved in 2 ml of acetic anhydride and 4 drops of chloroform were added into the test tubes. Then, 2 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid were added. The formation of brownish ring at interface of two liquids and the appearance of violet colour in supernatant layer indicated the presence of steroids glycosides (Cuilel, 1994).
Plant tissue culture is found to be an attractive alternative approach for production of desirable medicinal compounds, primary and secondary metabolites (Rao and Ravishankar, 2002). Trigonella foenum graecum Trigonella foenum graecum plant is commonly known as methi. Historically, fenugreek was used for a variety of health conditions, including menopausal symptoms and digestive problems. It was also used for inducing childbirth. The dried seeds are ground and taken by mouth or used to form a paste that is applied to the skin.
2010). From Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8, we determined that more compounds were observed in 0.2% acetic acid extract which were eluted at 280 nm than the ethanol extract. Additionally, in the antioxidant assays described above, more activity was seen in the 0.2 % acetic acid extracts except for the ferric reduction potential assay. A recent study revealed significant changes in metabolite levels during the ripening stages, specially the transition stage from green to red (Zhang et al. 2011).
Test for phlobatannin An aqueous extract of the plant sample was boiled with 1% aqeous hydrochloric acid and deposition of red precipate was taken as evidence for the presence of phlobatannins. Test for Terpenoids 5ml of each extract was mixed in 2ml chloroform, and concentrated H2 504 9 (3ml) was carefully added for form a layer. A reddish brown colouration of the interface was formed to
The alkaloids introduce the gathering of auxiliary metabolites that contain essential nitrogen iotas. Some related mixes with impartial and pitifully corrosive properties are likewise incorporated into the alkaloids. Notwithstanding carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, this gathering may likewise contain oxygen, sulfur and once in a while other component, for example, chlorine, bromine and phosphorus (22). The genuine alkaloids are gotten from amino acids, are essential and contain nitrogen in a heteroyclic ring, e.g. nicotine and atropine.