It's mainly because each substance has a different stability. The stability is based on the unbalance between the protons and neutrons. Protons that are positively charged and the electrons that are no surprise negatively charged. The number of protons and electrons the atom has, and the number of electrons it has gained or lost, results in different levels of stability. A substance which is less stable, will have a shorter half-life than a substance which is more stable.
This light then travels past the flame created by an atomizer. Where the atomizer essentially vaporizes an aqueous solution containing the metal ion(s), converting the input ionic solution from into atoms (IE: Na+Na). These atoms, are then shot with a specific ‘matching’ monochromatic light from the selected cathode lamp, whereby some the specific light is absorbed while passing by, This means that not all light will make it through the flame(IE less is detected then what is shot initially). After passing through the flame, the light is then filtered through a monochromator or prism, which works to select a specific wavelength of light, filtering all other unnecessary / unwanted wavelengths out. After this light is sufficiently filtered, the remaining ‘wanted’ wavelength of light is projected into a photomultiplier, which is an instrument that can collect, amplify and then finally measure the amount of light that was detected.
The methyl in between the amine group and the pyrene portion of the molecule creates a large enough distance so that the NH3+ does not interact with the hydrogen from the pyrene. Thus; allowing 1-pyrenemethylamine to dimerize, and utilize luminescent properties to understand the microenvironment of silica. The process is different from that of pyrene in that, with sufficient concentration in a polar solvent, the dimerization between two ground state 1-pyrenemethylamine molecules occur first. Then, the dimer absorbs a photon at a certain wavelength to excite, forming the excimer. Finally, the excimer emits a photon and reverts back to two ground state 1-pyrenemethylamine molecules.
Compton scattering is the result of an incident photon with a high energy collides with a loosely bound outer shell electron. The outer shell electron is knocked out of the outer shell and this causes the initial photon to lose some of its energy. This results in a recoil electron and a scattered photon. When the collision happens the scattered photon changes direction and the recoil electron (Compton Electron) is the electron that was once on the outer shell is sent on its own path. The scattered photon’s energy can be calculated by subtracting the recoiled electron from the initial photon’s energy.
The different amount energies released results in different color. This reason is the same reason that different elements have different line spectra. The quantum theory says that a certain amount of energy has be released or absorbed and Bohr 's said the same but with restrictions. The quantum theory would explain the vast differences in energy in color. The reason atoms need heat is because heat gives the atoms energy which causes them to move to an excited and then back to ground state.
Because they’re light and positioned outside the nucleus, electrons are much more easily dislodged from atoms than protons, so they’re the crucial carriers of electric charge. A negative charge can be thought of as an electron surplus, and a positive charge is an electron scarcity. When electrons move out of an region, it becomes positively charged, and the region to which they move becomes negative. (The Body Electric by Robert O. Becker, M. D. and Gary Selden) A flow of electrons is a current - measured in amperes - and a direct current is an even, steady flow of electrons (as opposed to the explosive discharge of static electricity in lightning bolts) which has flow AND force. Electric current has measurable movement (flow), and it has electromotive force (push) measured in
Radiation can be defined as the energy travelling through space which comes from a source and may be able to penetrate various materials. There are two types of radiation and they are the non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radiation consists of light, radio and microwaves. Whereby ionizing radiation can produce charged particles in matter, and ionizing radiation is produced by unstable atoms. The difference between unstable atoms and stable atoms is that unstable atoms have an excess of energy or mass or both.
A deuterium reaction releases energy in the form of free-flowing neutrons, which scientists cannot yet convert into electrical energy. As a case in point, in Didier C. Moreau article, “Potentiality of the proton-boron fuel for controlled thermonuclear fusion,” Moreau praises the absence of radiation in a hydrogen-boron fusion. The reaction, in turn, releases pure energy as free-flowing electrons. These electrons can be conducted by a simple metal plate. Hydrogen-boron also releases a large amount of energy in the form of light.
by using small doses of radioactive chemical particles which depends on the part of body is introduced for scanning. A Radionuclide is also known as a radioisotope which is a chemical and emits radioactivity known as gamma rays. A very little amount of radionuclide is inserted into the body by various ways like it is injected into the vein,
From several sets of data recorded, the average of the six sets of data in the energy region 200keV to 2000keV was used for the final analysis. Liden-Starfelt procedure  is followed to unfold the measured into true photon spectrum S(k) which gives No. of photons per moc2 per beta,. Observed pulse height distribution were corrected for background, Dead time of analyzer, resolving power, Compton distribution, K x-ray escape gamma detection efficiency and absorption in target compound, air, aluminum can. The major error in the present measurement were statistical error; error in determining intrinsic and geometric efficiencies, Photo fraction, energy resolution of the detector, EB absorption in target compound, air, aluminum can etc,.