Using celebrity endorsers, companies may easily crack into consumer’s symbolic association to an aspirational reference groups, as celebrity endorsers are perceived as dynamic, attractive and likable (Assael, 1984; Atkins and Block, 1983; Kamins, 1990). Today Celebrity Endorsement has become an integral part of the advertisement industry. In fact, celebrity endorsements are omnipresent feature of present day marketing, this whole true for the Indian perspective as well (O’Mahony.S, 1998). Celebrities are increasingly being used by marketers to get attention and recall of the consumers. Not only this, the marketers expect their brands to benefit in many more ways by linking their brands to the celebrities.
The use of celebrities in advertising as celebrity endorsement is a classic appeal that seeks the attention of the hearing and transfer the meanings associated with these characters or field of sport entertainment generally to the products and services of brands. The prevalence in use, it depends on the cultural level ranging from the notorious use in Western countries of character more individualistic and higher, profuse and abundant use Asian countries, with more collectivist culture. The incidence of celebrities and famous advertising is even more evident in advertising aimed at the young people as they show even more permeable to the presence and association with celebrities and famous brands (Şahin and Atik, 2013). There are also studies
But in broader meanings, any individual who is successful in the world of sports, business, art, politics, and the military can be attributed into the group of celebrities. The celebrities themselves transfer their own personality and image to the brand and product they are representing, generating a related image between themselves and the brand or product. In order for the endorsement to be successful, there are three different attributes the celebrity uses to communicate to the consumers. These are: Attractiveness Trustworthiness Expertise The most important aspect when practicing celebrity endorsement is the choice of celebrity. The impact on and the outcome of the endorsement have to be well evaluated before, during and after it takes place, with the intention of generating customers and creating brand loyalty.
Celebrities use impression manage in order to create and maintain a particular image to the public. Implementing Goffman’s concept to singer song writer Lady Gaga with unconventional and provocative practices reveals a deeper purpose with her involvement in celebrity status. Goffman’s theory states that celebrities’ constantly explore different images simply by putting on a front in order to enhance images within popular culture to be accepted by society. By enhancing their image within the public would more than likely accompany a larger fan base and, therefore, which increases their fortune (Ferrante, 2008).Due to her promotion and influence of youth empowerment and self- identity Lady Gaga draws critical acclaim subsequently boosting her public image. The social implications are overwhelming in the sense that a person would pretend to be something they are not in order to gain mass social acceptance.
Gabler (2001) introduces the concept of “human entertainment”, by which means that a celebrity is not just an entertainer, rather a person who by the process of living provides general entertainment for us. Celebrity endorser Solomon (2009) stated that celebrity endorsement is the use of famous people like the actors, actresses, singers, dancers, musicians, artists and athletes. According to McCracken (1989), these famous people had a great influence on the consumer buying behavior of the individuals that is why it is the most powerful tool of advertising. Credibility According to Mowen and Minor, (1998) source credibility refers to the extent that a source is perceived to be believed with regard to expertise and trustworthiness. McCracken (1989) describe that source credibility is describing how trust and expertise influences the endorsement process.
Celebrity credibility This is a concept which defines a positive characteristic of the source leader to the acceptance of the message but the audience (Ohanian, 1991). Ohanian, proposed that there is a model which is three-dimensional which includes “Testimony”, Attractiveness” and “Reliability” of the source. Therefore, a credible celebrity is likely to have more effectiveness on the advertising campaign than that of one who is not that credible. This also proves that generally celebrities are considered a reliable and trustworthy source of information concerning the products he/she endorsing (Goldsmith, Laffery & Newell, 2000) making it even more essential for brands to carefully pick a celebrity which is in line with their advertising campaign
The rapid increase in the programs and websites has also inclined the rivalry among different channels for targeted audience and advertisement companies. In line, to raise the competition and rivalry, the demand for economic content is increased (e.g. latest celebrity gossip, their love-life, trendiness and new fashions in the industry) in order to complete the flourishing quantity of broadcasting time. An English lecturer at the New Jersey College, Ewing; David Blake said that “the media has completely modified the individuals’ experience about celebrity culture than the development in any other culture.” He further added that “Both social and broadcasting Media has made the celebrities more pervasive and dominant in prevailing society and this upsurge has created a completely new sector of public relations. Once the main focus of public relations was to prepare talented peoples with their relative interests and analysis of those benefits that are gained by them but now it involves more dimensions.
Introduction Celebrity endorsement means any individual that who are enjoys public recognition and use this recognition on behalf of the product by presenting it in an advertisement (Mc Cracken, 1989). They using a celebrity in advertising to promote a product or service is prevalent in advertising. In reality, approximately 20% use celebrity endorsement in all commercials advertisement. It is great potential to the brand itself to manage well the brand equity when using celebrity endorsers to promote their product to the market. It is proves that using celebrity endorsers are more focus on their personal attitudes and increase their validity and also their persuasiveness.
Companies make considerable investments for the sole purpose of matching their brands with the relevant celebrity endorser, perfectly. Furthermore, a huge decline in the productivity and effectiveness of other marketing communication tools (Blondé & Roozen, 2006) has led to the firms wanting to pay whatever ridiculous amounts of fee these celebrities demand for endorsing their product. Since there is an enormous impact of celebrity endorsement on the profitability and image of the firm (Endorgan, 2001), the continuous involvement of the senior management in the decision-making process can be seen regarding which famous personality to select to endorse their product. Due to the considerable costs involved in hiring celebrities, it becomes essential for the marketing and advertising managers to not only form a proper link between the quality and characteristics of the endorser with the endorsed brand's equity (Dwivedi, Lester & McDonald, 2015) but to also identify any other variables, determinants or factors which play an influential role between the relationship of endorser credibility and brand equity. "Brand schematicity" has therefore been adopted in this study as the third variable, to assess its impact on the former two
A research conducted by Anmol Randhawa and Javeed Ahmed Khan showed that a celebrity endorsement has both positive and negative impact on the consumer’s decision making. It enhances the brand’s value and creates awareness of the brand’s products among consumers. Advertisements featuring celebrity endorsed products influence a consumer to purchase that product rather than the non-celebrity endorsed products. (Randhawa and Khan, 2014) The negative impact is frequent changes of celebrity endorsers reduces the buying decisions of customers. Also, the research output conveyed that consumers think that the quality of celebrity endorsed products are not good which is the main reason for declining the brand’s products.