Fuzzy logic is mostly applied in the field of control systems as they can interpret human actions. This controller’s use decision making rules like if-then on critical variables to interpolate the output between crisp boundaries. Fuzzy logic is a set of mathematical principles for knowledge representation based on degrees of membership. Fuzzy logic is an approach where human reasoning is imparted in the control
The resistivity of water muds is measured and controlled, whenever desired to permit better evaluation of formation properties from electrical logs. Measurements of the resistivity of water muds, filtrates and filter cakes are routinely applied in electrical logging. Resistivity measurement provides a rapid means of detecting soluble salts in barite and in waters, such as makeup or produced waters. The resistivity meter is a portable measuring device designed to give an accurate measurement of the resistivity of a small sample expressed in ohm-meters. The ohm-meter reading may be converted into parts per million (ppm) using the nomograph provided.
The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is one of the common ideal reactor types in chemical engineering field. CSTR often refers to a model which used to estimate the key unit operation variables by using a continuous agitated-tank reactor to reach aimed output. One of the example of CSTR is the cooling tank which undergoes exothermic reaction which will be further discussed in this project. The mathematical model applied for all fluids such as liquids, slurries or even gases. Chemical kinetics and reactor design are vitally important in producing almost all industrial chemicals.
Bubbles are often observed in ﬂuids of industrial interest. For instance, bubbles are important in the water treatment process and design of reactors. In addition, the dynamic behaviour of bubbles in ﬂuids, and more speciﬁcally viscoelastic and non-Newtonian ﬂuids, is of great importance in diﬀerent ﬁelds such as polymer sciences, composites, boiling, plastic foam processing and bubble absorption . Pharmaceutical, petro-chemical and food industries also encounter issues with rising bubbles in non-Newtonian ﬂuids such as detergents, paints and foods (ketchup, yoghurt etc.) As a result, a better understanding of bubble motion in non-Newtonian ﬂuids can be helpful in many scientiﬁc and industrial applications.
A specific type of knowledge-based control is the fuzzy rule-based control, where the control actions corresponding to particular conditions of the system are described in terms of fuzzy if-then rules. Fuzzy sets are used to define the meaning of qualitative values of the controller inputs and outputs. Figure 3 shows the basic structure of a fuzzy logic controller. The main building units of an FLC are a fuzzification unit, a fuzzy logic inference unit, a rule-base, and a defuzzification unit. Defuzzification is the process of converting inferred fuzzy control actions into a crisp control
. The FES composed of four components which include Knowledge base, Fuzzification, Inference engine and Defuzzification. In fuzzification, input is transformed to fuzzy using membership functions. In the inference process, fuzzy input is changed into fuzzy output using fuzzy rule set and mamdani inference method (max-min approach) is used. Finally in defuzzification, the fuzzy output of the fuzzy inference engine is converted as crisp output using centroid method.
Literature Review This section aims to concisely provide details on models designed by far to simulate and predict the performance of filter columns as it becomes progressively clogged. Notwithstanding the shortcoming of many of existing model unable to accurately emulate the clogged filter bed, these information are still useful as they provide several key knowledge of filter operating under clogged bed circumstances, and serve as guidelines during the development of our model. Three key information will be discussed in this section: i) variation in specific deposit as filter becomes progressively clogged, ii) clogged bed equations and iii) modelling software used in the simulation of the particular numerical model. Estimating specific
When reactor is operating under laminar conditions, the flow pattern can be represented by Navier Stokes equation. But most industrial operations involve reactors proceeding in turbulent region where we cannot use general continuity and Navier stokes equation. In such cases, the flow field and patterns of fluid in the reactor are specifically computed by numerical simulations using commercial computation fluid dynamics code FLUENT. This code is again coupled with external functions (user defined functions UDFs) and used to model gas- phase reactions and surface chemistry mechanisms. The dynamic behaviour of reacting fluid is well elucidated using CFD which is based on the software package called DETCHEM.