Theory Of Accepted Action Planned Behavior (TPB)

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Review of Literature
2.1.Background:abusive behaviors Over the past few decades, a growing number of Studies have been the contention that female perpetrate abuse at rates equal, or similar, to males (Dutton,et al.,2004;Straus, 1999). Findings are relatively consistent across dating, cohabitating, and marital relationships in community samples; though, there is some evidence to suggest young respondents (under 30 years) in dating relationships evidence higher rates of aggression,particularly by women (Sorenson,et al.,1996; Sommer,et al. 1992; Follingstad,et al. 1991). A review of the literature indicates that like , Women initiate abusive, women commit unilateral aggression (i.e., against non-abusive partners), sometimes of a
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The theory of reasoned action planned behavior (TPB)was developed by (Ajzen ,2001,1991,1989) and is seen as an exten¬sion of the theory of reasoned action holds that the intention (motiva¬tion) to perform a certain behavior is dependent on whether individuals evaluate the behavior as positive (attitude) and if they judge others as wanting them to perform the behavior (subjective norm). TPB builds on this theory and holds that all behavior is not exe¬cuted under purposeful control and that behaviors lie on a continuum from total control to complete lack of control. Both internal factors (cognitive skills, knowl¬edge, emotions) and external factors (situations or environment) determine the degree of control. TPB is based on the connection between attitudes and behaviors. Behavior is based on and guided by three kinds of beliefs and cognitive…show more content…
Delinquents “cannot or have not gained the sense of a central self” that affirms their personal uniqueness or value (Levy, 1997). The discovery of enhanced self-image in delinquent teens (Bynum & Weiner, 2002;E. Anderson, 1999) suggests that violence and criminal conduct may serve as a psychological mechanism for coping with poverty, a harsh environment at home, or the threat of family or neighborhood violence (Rosario, et al.,2003; Feigelman, et al.,2000; Prothrow- Stith, 1995). In ( E. Anderson’s, 1999, 1994) research with a sample of inner-city African American youth, notes that violence was used as a defensive posture to gain respect and avoid victimization (i.e., the “code of the streets”). (Fagan & Wilkinson ,1998) observe that frequent experiences with violence may impel youth to assimilate more deeply such a “street code” for self-protection. Bynum & Weiner found sta¬tistical correlations between high scores on the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and violent delinquency.
Cognitive Deficits. Cognitive ability was found to predict criminal involvement (S. D. Levitt & Lochner, 2001). The correlation between cognitive deficits and antisocial behavior holds across social class, race, and academic level (Lynam,et al.,1993). Self-defeating thought patterns often contribute to elevated risk for problem behavior (Jessor et al., 1998). Among these

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