Understanding a more define connection between general strain theory and juvenile delinquency is the breakdown among racial factors and strains that may affect one group more than the other. Minorities such as blacks and Hispanics are more like to be charged with more serious crimes than whites(Peck). The reason being is because minorities may have more stains such as poverty, discrimination, and criminal victimization. These strains can leave a damper on the growth of one group of people when there is various amount of strains to keep a group from progressing. Often as a young minority, juveniles are taught by their environment or parents on how to survive in America.
Thus, it is important to shed light on the few research papers that have discussed this issue. A few research papers did investigate the Psychopathic Checklist (PCL-R) on imprisoned females (Loucks, 1995; Neary, 1990; Strachan, 1993; Tien, Lamb, Bond, Gillstrom, & Paris, 1993). These research papers have introduced us to some important issues that should be taken into account when discussing gender-biasness in the Psychopathic Checklist (PCL-R). One of this issues is that on average women scored 35% less compared to the outcome of the test for men. The factor structure did also change when the Psychopathic Checklist (PCL-R) was used to assess women.
Criminal history variable showed that high risk offenders were the most to violate probation (Stevens-Martin et al, 2014). The three variables mentioned showed the different sides that data was collected to determine who would most likely violate probation (Stevens-Martin et al, 2014). The most common technical violations were failure to report, maintain employment, failure to pay court fees and restitution (Stevens-Martin et al, 2014). The offenders that got their technical violations revoked where usually offered treatment in lieu of time serve (Stevens-Martin et al, 2014). The most common type of offender that got technical violations were high risk with serious criminal history (Stevens-Martin et al, 2014).
Wilson stated that the causation of child abuse is multifaceted relating to the background of the parent. He mentioned individual and sociological causation such as stress, drugs and alcohol, and the ignorance of raising a child. In regards to stress, he mentioned the community and factors of location and lack of resources. This connected well to the sociological theory of child abuse specifically resource theory that relates to the lack of control by those who are economically disadvantaged and lack of alternatives to punish creating the environment for abuse (Loseke, 43). Drugs and alcohol were another causation that he brought up as a reason for abuse.
The problem with home removal is that the family’s and/or environment are not able to utilize the resources for rehabilitation and sometimes the environment is the explanation from crime; but that can be discussed further on. A first program in review is juvenile boot camps. These programs were developed to mimic adult like boot camps; some offered treatment and skill building, while others implemented military-like discipline (Chambliss, 2011). These types of facilities are showing little to no positive outcome and even more links to higher recidivism in juveniles. While the boot camps brought about new issues within the system, they have also acted as a trial and error piece
The strong connection between anger and unjust treatment has been the focus in many studies. Scheuerman’s (2013) research indicated that anger is the mediator between the relationship of injustice and crime. Two separate studies conducted by Brezina indicated that anger motivates youth to commit delinquent acts because they feel their autonomy is jeopardized or their esteemed stimuli is in need of being guarded or recovered (Hoffman & Spense, 2010). GST Policy
The first is whether abuse has deleterious effects. “In earlier studies, in which samples were nonrepresentative and family ecological factors (such as poverty, marital violence, and family instability) and child biological variables (such as early health problems and temperament) were ignored, findings have been ambiguous. Results from a prospective study of a representative sample of 309 children indicated that physical abuse is indeed a risk factor for later aggressive behavior even when the other ecological and biological factors are known. The second question concerns the processes by which antisocial development occurs in abused children. Abused children tended to acquire deviant patterns of processing social information, and these may mediate the development of aggressive behavior” (Dodge 1990).
Multisystemic therapy (MST) is considered a family and community based intervention based off of Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) theory of social ecology (Borduin et al., 2009). Consistent with Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) theory of social ecology, a key notion of the MST theory of change is that juvenile delinquency is motivated by the interaction of numerous risk factors linked to the multiple systems in which youth are surrounded by; family, school, and neighborhood (Borduin et al., 2009). What the research does not tell us about Multisystemic therapy is whether or not its effectiveness varies based on ones SES group. SES is an important factor to consider because it is suggested that youth who maintain a lower socioeconomic status may face more toxicity when faced with adversity, which may lead to severe delinquency (Low, Sinclair & Short, 2012).While MST research has revealed its efficacy on juvenile delinquency like in Robinson et
When considering these statistics, which state that Black and Latino teens are more likely to commit juvenile offenses it is important to keep the following in mind: poverty, or low socio-economic status are large predictors of low parental monitoring, harsh parenting, and association with deviant peer groups, all of which are in turn associated with juvenile offending. The majority of adolescents who live in poverty are racial minorities. Also, minorities who offend, even as adolescents, are more likely to be arrested and punished more harshly by the law if caught. Particularly concerning a non-violent crime and when compared to white adolescents. While poor minorities are more likely to commit violent crimes, one third of affluent teens report committing violent crimes.
There have been many studies conducted on female delinquent behaviors, and the factors that lead up to it. As it states in our textbook (Juvenile Justice in America) the most important dimensions are “females’ involvement in offenses; their use of drugs and alcohol; their participation in illegal behaviors, including prostitution and violence; their experiences across the life course; and their desistance and persistence as offenders.” When we compare females to males involved in delinquent behaviors we find that male’s crimes are often more violent, and the females are also less likely to become repeat offenders. Some studies lead you to believe that there is an increase in violence with female juvenile because the arrests rates increased
Furthermore, this leaves room for states to implement their own practices and ways to address status offenders. It has also been argued that the Act “fractured the juvenile justice system so that officials in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare handled white, middle-income youth” (Hinton, 2015, p. 816). Programs which labeled white youths as “children in trouble” marked minority youths as “chronic offenders” who were deemed a danger to society, and tried as an adult. The exceptions and revisions that have been made to the Act make it possible for repeat status offenders to be detained in secure
In the same article it was also stated that, “Researchers found that childhood maltreatment was a risk factor for officially recognized delinquency, violent self-reported delinquency and moderate self-reported delinquency. Overall, child maltreatment appeared to be a risk factor for more serious delinquency, such as assaults, but not lesser forms of delinquency, such as underage drinking.” Another form of juvinile behavior they partake in, often tends to lead to drug abuse. They grew up with it being okay to hit someone just for the sake of it. They become used to the idea that these things are normal and they rarely look to see what the consequences of their actions will be in the near future. Lastly this
Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin (1960) suggested that delinquency and gang formation originate from differential chance structures: the uneven distribution of legitimate and illegitimate way of getting goals. Lower-class adolescents ' limited accessibility legal way of achieving goals leaves them frustrated. Gangs can help to eliminate feelings of powerlessness by supplying youth’s use of illegitimate means that 's, with possibilities to understand and become instructed in crime by seasoned
Studies have shown that women have reported histories of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, more than men which contribute to their mental instability. In 2005, 73.1 percent of women in state prisons had a mental health problem (Daniel, 2007). 80 percent of incarcerated women meet the criteria for at least one lifetime psychiatric disorder (Daniel, 2007). Substance abuse, dependence, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression appear to be the most common mental health problems for female inmates (Daniel, 2007). Incarcerated women have also shown a strong link between childhood abuse and adult mental health problems.
"Studies have shown that continuing delinquent youth in correctional facilites will return to the same adverse environment". [CITE] Therefore, incarcerating young offenders is an ineffective way in preventing the juvenile rate. Instead, it increases their chance of recidivism. Although there is structure in correctional facilites, there is a lack of positive reinforcement