TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Unknown A is Excedrin because they both look like white powders and they were both soluble. When the universal indicator was added they both turned red, which indicted their pH level was 4.0. Then when we tested the pH with the pH strips they both showed the pH as being 3.0. After that, we added HCl or stomach acid and both drugs dissolved and were soluble. We tested the pH and it dropped to 1.0.
Intro: Separation and purification of an unknown/complex compound can be done by using techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, solid-liquid extraction, recrystallization, melting point, and thin layer chromatography. In this experiment, these techniques were used to separate excedrin’s components containing caffeine, excedrin, and acetaminophen, Each component has its own chemical properties and characteristics such as polarity, reactivity, and solubility. Knowing how to separate and purify compounds from each other is an important skill within in a lab setting. A few techniques for first initially separating compounds apart are liquid-liquid extraction and solid liquid extraction. Liquid-Liquid extraction involves using a seperatory funnel and release on varying solubities and different solids in immiscible solvents.
Structural Features Acetaminophen is a molecule that is made of twenty atoms; its bonds consist of fourteen single bonds and four double bonds. Acetaminophen is also composed of clusters atoms with groups with names. First of all, part of an acetaminophen atom is a benzene ring. A benzene ring is a ring of six carbon atoms that are connected to each other by three double bonds and three single bonds and unusually all the bond are the same size. In addition, to make sure all the electrons in the outer valence are used the there are hydrogen atoms bonded to stabilize the carbon atoms.
Percocet Withdrawal Treatment Percocet is a combination of acetaminophen and oxycodone. Acetaminophen is a pain reliever which is less potent but its effect increased when it is combined with oxycodone. Oxycodone is an opioid pain medication. Percocet is often used as a prescription drug to relieve moderate to severe pain. But too much of Percocet dependency leads to addiction of it.
Based on the data, the eluent system that represented the best separation of the three compounds, anisole, benzoic acid, and o-toluidine, was the 4:1 hexanes to ethyl acetate ratio because it showed the greatest distance between the compounds. The highest Rf values indicated that the least polar compounds, which traveled the furthest distance, were least attracted to the polar plate due to the smaller amounts of hydrogen bonding that occurred between the compound and the plate. Anisole had the highest Rf values, of 0.920 and 0.773, compared to benzoic acid and o-toluidine because it had the least hydrogen bonding ability to the silica gel, while o-toluidine and benzoic acid may have been able to form more hydrogen bonds to the polar gel. O-toluidine
The Life & Death Of Super-Aspirin The life duration of super-aspirin is preventing blood clots leading to heart attacks and strokes after an angioplasty procedure and also a blood thinning agent. And the death of super-aspirin that leads to the blood thinning receptor to form more blood clots, than fewer. The life survival of angioplasty procedure is taking super-aspirin, which helps stop the forming of blood clots. As stated from WebMD “more super-aspirin protect heart better.”
The results were an indicative for expected IR spectrum of pure phenacetin. The IR spectrum showed peaks at (3281.67 cm-1) which indicate the presence of the N=H stretch, (3131.40 cm-1 and 3073.97 cm-1) representing the Sp2 C-H stretches, (2982.26 cm-1, 2927.60 cm-1 and 2885.53 cm-1) expressing the Sp3 C-H stretches, also (1656.82 cm-1) indicating the C =O amide stretch, and finally a wavelength at (1603.51 cm-1) representing the aromatic C =C stretch of the phenacetin molecule, respectively. Such IR spectrum results from phenacetin in comparison with an acetaminophen IR spectrum clearly showed the elimination of the hydroxide (OH) bond present at the acetaminophen molecular structure, which resulted in the IR spectrum not indicating the presence of a strong and broad (alcohol-phenol) band at about 3500 cm-1
After that the article gets quite scientific into the make up of caffeine, what it releases, and the structure of caffeine. There were many things to learn from this article. Caffeine is equally addictive to humans as drugs. It was discovered over 5,000 years ago in tea and indian "black drinks" and began to be used in many other things such as chocolate and even pills or "energy shots". The article here leans more into what it actually does to the body.
Caffeine is a chemical found naturally in few plants all over the world. From these plants it is processed into its pure form and then put into other things such as soda, energy drinks, tea, and pills. Energy drinks and soda are some of the most widely marketed products in the world, even though they contain the highest concentration of caffeine outside of pure caffeine supplements. It is a stimulant that affects everyone in strange but semi predictable ways. Research has been done on this topic since the 1920’s and many different conclusions have been reached.
DISCUSSION Periodontal disease, which is characterized by gingival attachment loss and bone resorption, is a family of diseases affecting the dental supporting tissues. The currently recognized key Gram negative periodontopathogens in the periodontal pocket could damage periodontal tissues and good knowledge of these as well as an adequate treatment could be helpful in treatment of periodontal disease.6 Mechanical therapy is usually the first mode of therapy recommended and is considered the gold standard till date. However, the temporary effect of subgingival scaling and root planing and its inability to eradicate all periodontal pathogens is explained by the unfavourable anatomy or dimensions of periodontal pockets.5 Local delivery of antimicrobial
There are side effects of caffeine with high dosage such as insomnia and headaches and prolong usage may lead to dependence on caffeine. Caffeine can be found in tea leaves, coffee, kola nuts and cocoa beans with varying amounts. About 5% of the leaf weight comprises
General Purpose: To inform Specific purpose: To inform the audience on the effects caffeine has on the body Format: Topical Format: Positive and negative effects I. Introduction to caffeine: What is caffeine? - Caffeine is a natural stimulant most commonly found in tea, coffee and cacao plants.” B. Where else is caffeine mostly found?