After finding the Rf values of the four known compounds, solvent 1 (99.5% ethyl acetate/0.5% acetic acid) was chosen, due to the wide range of results, for the remaining experiments. Ibuprofen, our known tablet, gave a similar Rf value to our previous results for Ibuprofen. For Anadin extra, there were three compounds identified as Caffeine, Paracetamol and Aspirin as the Rf values of the drug were close to the values of these three compounds in the first part of the practical. For both of these known drugs, the Rf values acquired were close to my predictions before the experiment. For the unknown powder, we obtained Rf values of 0.52 and 0.76 so we believe that the unknown powder contains Aspirin and Ibuprofen.
Thus, a higher percent yield was calculated for acetaminophen. Although, a second filtration was performed; however, a very low concentration of acetaminophen was recovered as a result of human errors, and the transfer of solution/solid contributed to product loss. However, the mass use to calculate percent yield was the first mass recorded because it may be more consistent than the mass measured after the second filtration. However, for further experiments, the percent yield must be calculated with the corresponding mass of product (actual yield) even though there is loss of product, the actual yield is the final concentration of the recovered product in the experiment. Thus, the results may be more conclusive if the actual percent yield was used. However, in this particular experiment, despite this deviation, aspirin, caffeine and acetaminophen compounds were successfully isolated from the analgesic
The main objective of this experiment was the formation of phenacetin from the synthesis of acetaminophen. This was done through a chemical reaction known as the Williamson ether synthesis using techniques of refluxing, vacuum filtration and recrystallization incorporating a mixed solvent system. A further objective of this experiment was to study the formation of the product (phenacetin). Such validation was completed by using techniques for determining the melting point, calculating percent yield, and IR (infrared spectroscopy) of the resultant product.
Based on the assumed contamination of the TLC plate and or capillary tube, it is not possible to tell whether acetaminophen was successfully separated from the Excedrin powder. The Rf values of isolated aspirin and pure aspirin were the same. This demonstrates that the aspirin was successfully separated and is relatively pure. The isolated caffeine sample had a higher Rf value but when viewed under UV light, the markings of isolated caffeine were within the bounds of the pure caffeine, leading to the conclusion that while isolated the caffeine sample was note
The Rmaz and EC50 of histamine control were 16.49gms and 2.093 x 10-7M respectively. In figure 1, when 5 x 10-9M, 5 x10-8M and 5 x 10-7M of mepyramine were added, the EC50 of histamine was increased to 6.254 x 10-6M, 4.752 x 10-5M and 0.0002428M respectively. The Rmaz of histamine in the presence of final bath concentration (FBC) of 5 x 10-9M, 5 x10-8M and 5 x 10-7M antagonist either mepyramine or drug A were remained almost constant in Figure 1 and 2. On the other hand, the EC50 of histamine was increased to 3.455 x10-5M, 0.0001693M and 0.0006647M during the presence of FBC of 5 x 10-9M, 5 x10-8M and 5 x 10-7M drug A respectively. Hence, higher histamine’s concentrations were needed to achieve EC50 as the antagonist’s concentration increased. The calculated pA2 and KB of mepyramine were 10.148 and 7.1143 x 10-11 respectively whereas the calculated pA2 and KB of Drug A were 11.771 and 1.6961 x 10-12
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the level of purity by using the values for melting point and absorbance and chemically synthesizing aspirin by using phosphoric acid as a catalyst. Pure ASA crystals are isolated from the solution with a Hirsch Funnel that was used with a filter. The melting point of the pure ASA crystals were calculated in order to calculate of absorbance. Iron (III) salicylate dianion must contain the acidified solution Fe3+ in order to measure the absorbance values. The level of the impurity can
The purpose of this experiment was to understand the pharmacokinetics of the drug acetaminophen within the body, specifically focusing on its partition coefficient, drug protein interaction and its bioavailability through various form of administration. The bioavailability of the drug was determined to be 100% for IV because the drug is injected directly into the systemic circulation in its active form and this is also visible on Figure 4, where the initial concentration of drug is much higher than in PO and IP. For PO and IP administration, the bioavailability was determined to be 72.6% and 39.1%, respectively. This makes sense because both of these type of administration involve the first-pass effect where a portion of the drug is metabolized by peripheral organs, especially the liver in this case, and therefore the amount of active drug reaching the circulation is less. PO administration, however has a much higher content reaching the circulation than IP, because the IP route involves passing through the whole gastrointestinal tract before being absorbed in the liver while the IP route injects the drug into the
Pediatric dosing for Acetaminophen for child < 60 kg is 10 to 15 mg/kg/dose orally every 4-6 hours. A maximum dose of 75 mg/kg/day in infants.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the active chemical component in Tylenol and Anacin using thin layer chromatography. The active chemical ingredient in Tylenol was determined to be acetaminophen while the active chemical ingredient in Anacin was determined to be acetylsalicylic acid.
Utilizing the techniques of acid-base extraction and Thin Layer Chromatography we were able to extract the three active components of Excedrin and confirm the identity of each compound. The three active components of Excedrin- aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine- all have varying acidities and polarity which allowed for the successful usage of acid-base extraction and TLC respectively. Acid-base extraction was applied by adding our compound to a basic solvent in order to isolate the components by turning them into water-soluble ionic salts. Then, by adding a stronger acid, like HCl, our components were protonated and precipitated out of the aqueous solvent. This creates crystals with can be analyzed with TLC. We extracted the components using
Acetaminophen is a very common medicine found in prescription and over-the-counter medications, used for the treatment of low fever and pain. It is the active ingredient in Tylenol. It is also called Acetaminophen and available in doses for infants, children, and adults.
Aspirin, Acetaminophen, an Ibuprofen have been around for centuries. They are mainly used to help the sickness of people, which may be minor or major. Acetylsalicylic Acid is another common name Aspirin maybe called. Aspirin treats minor aches, fever, and swelling. Aspirin has also been known to reduce the risk of a heart attack. Aspirins can be used in tablets, capsules, and caplets. Aspirin has also been known to be used in a powdered form. Aspirin has the chemical formula of C9H8O4. Aspirin was one of the first common drugs that people used the most. 35,000 metric tons of Aspirin are produced annually, which is about 100 billion tablets a year. Felix Hoffman invented Aspirin. Hoffman received a U.S patent as an inventor. Felix was born on
There is a difference between the dosages of the two antipyretic medications. The dosage of acetaminophen (panadol) ranged from 8 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg and for ibuprofen from 5 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg).
In a pharmaceutical setting, many over the counter drugs can usually be classified under one of four main categories: acetyl salicylic acid, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and naproxen. These four main categories are known as Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, also known as NSAIDs, which primarily reduce inflammation by reducing the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are the chemicals in the body which promote pain, fever, and inflammation. All of these medicines contain the active pharmaceutical ingredient which is used in order to manufacture a drug product. Most of these medicines also have a coating to make the drug easier to ingest, a colorant, a binder to hold the drug together, caffeine, or a buffering agent to avoid drastic
Briefly, the cartridges were preconditioned by flushing with 2 mL of methanol and 1 mL of HPLC water. Separately, 50 µL of plasma sample plus 100 µL of an 85% phosphoric acid:water mixture (1:10) and 10 µL of internal standard solution (diclofenac at 100 µg/mL) were vortex mixeding. Then, samples were loaded into the cartridge and allowed to stand for 5 min, washed with 0.6 mL of a water:methanol mixture (95:5. v/v) and then dried under vacuum. The (S)-ketoprofen was eluted with 1 mL of an acetonitrile:methanol mixture (50:50, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The eluate was evaporated to dryness in a water bath at 37.0 ± 0.5 ᵒC under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was reconstituted in 50 µL of mobile phase and 30 µL were injected onto the HPLC