1) Percentage yield experiment: First we measured 20cm3 of sulphuric acid into a beaker using a measuring cylinder, this will help us determine the percentage yield at the end of the experiment. We then heated the beaker containing the sulphuric acid using a Bunsen burner in order to heat it up for the copper oxide to mix with. We then weighed out 1.02g of copper oxide and added it to the acid and stirred it whilst doing so, we did that until the liquid turned blue, this proves that the chemicals have mixed together. We then weighed this liquid which will help us determine the percentage yield. We then filtered the liquid off which gave us the amount we obtained.
Bio-diesel production yields undesirable by-products for example methanol and glycerin. These by-products are removed so that the bio-diesel is suitable for use. Fractional distillation is used in the essential oil, flavor and fragrance industry. Raw essential oils are extracted from different plants such as mint, clove and tee tree for example. These raw oils contains impurities that have a bad flavour or odor.
The concentration of ethanoic acid in the vinegar can be determined through stoichiometric calculations, Using the values obtained from the titration, and also the chemical equation as a reference. Phenolphthalein indicator is used in this acid-base titration Equipment and materials: Commercial vinegar, Yamaha brand 0.1 mol/dm3, NaOH soloution Phenolpthalein indicator soloution (50.00 ± 0.5 cm3 ) cm3 burrete (250.00 ± 0.5 cm3) volumetric flask a (250 cm3± 0.5 cm3)
Acetone is a high flammable liquid that caused serious aye irritation and may cause drowsiness and dizziness, and irritation to mucous membranes. Dichloromethane – when in contact with skin, eyes, or respiratory tract might cause irritation; if swallowed is harmful and may cause problems in the nervous system. A thin layer chromatography chamber and TLC plate with silica were prepared; a line was drawn with pencil about 1 cm above the bottom of the plate. Using a capillary tube, small drops of solvent were added to the plate leaving then the solvent evaporate (the smaller the diameter of the spot, the more accurate the results). Methylene chloride was added to the TLC chamber until it reaches 0.5 cm depth in order to cover the bottom of the jar; a piece of filter paper was added to the jar allowing the solvent to travel up the paper and the surface area of the solvent increased.
As it is the part of the eye that is responsible for central vision, sufferers therefore lose their ability to use their central vision. There are two types of AMD; Dry AMD and Wet AMD. Dry AMD develops when there is a build-up of waste products called drusen. A build-up of these waste products result in the damage of light cells of the macular leaving you with blurry central vision. Wet AMD however is a more severe case of AMD which develops due to abnormal blood vessels growing under the macular, believed to be caused because of a misguided attempt to clear the waste products.
Next, is the verification and determination of pure liquids. A clean and dry a 25mL graduated cylinder must be gathered from the lab cart, weigh the dry cylinder to the nearest mg and record the data. Add distilled water to the cylinder making sure the water level is at above the 20mL mark but below the 25mL mark. Determine and record the temperature of the water in the cylinder. Then, reweigh the cylinder to the nearest milligram.
The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester from breaking apart into its constituents. The cold finger condenser was used to trap evaporated gas from the heated mixture, and condense it back into
This would have made the results less accurate and made any errors change the final results even more. To make sure this doesn’t happen, there needs to be more trials to increase the precision of the results. Abstract The purpose of the lab was to determine what each of nice substances was based upon how they reacted with other chemicals as well as their pH levels. By using the given clues, the reaction with Litmus paper, and the precipitates formed by different mixtures, the chemicals were identified. Substance 1 was found to be BaCl , substance 2 was determined to be NaOH, and substance 3 was labeled as CuSO .
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
Other indeterminate random error consists in the apparatus and measuring accuracy, fluctuating at half the measurement of the lowest measurements made. This was especially important in the measurement of liquids, with +/- 0.05 millilitre differences in either the Hydrogen or the distilled water. Since these two liquids get added together, the error values add to create an overall uncertainty sum. This therefore provides the ASS and solution combined an error uncertainty of +/- 0.1mL. Due to the nature of this experiment however, this error is neglect able and the general trends form with high