1) Percentage yield experiment: First we measured 20cm3 of sulphuric acid into a beaker using a measuring cylinder, this will help us determine the percentage yield at the end of the experiment. We then heated the beaker containing the sulphuric acid using a Bunsen burner in order to heat it up for the copper oxide to mix with. We then weighed out 1.02g of copper oxide and added it to the acid and stirred it whilst doing so, we did that until the liquid turned blue, this proves that the chemicals have mixed together. We then weighed this liquid which will help us determine the percentage yield. We then filtered the liquid off which gave us the amount we obtained.
Bio-diesel production yields undesirable by-products for example methanol and glycerin. These by-products are removed so that the bio-diesel is suitable for use. Fractional distillation is used in the essential oil, flavor and fragrance industry. Raw essential oils are extracted from different plants such as mint, clove and tee tree for example. These raw oils contains impurities that have a bad flavour or odor.
The equation of the reaction between sodium hydroxide and ethanoic acid is as follows: CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O We can measure the end point of titration process and we can also measure the amount of reactants. The concentration of ethanoic acid in the vinegar can be determined through stoichiometric calculations, Using the values obtained from the titration, and also the chemical equation as a reference. Phenolphthalein indicator is used in this acid-base titration Equipment and materials:
Acetone is a high flammable liquid that caused serious aye irritation and may cause drowsiness and dizziness, and irritation to mucous membranes. Dichloromethane – when in contact with skin, eyes, or respiratory tract might cause irritation; if swallowed is harmful and may cause problems in the nervous system. A thin layer chromatography chamber and TLC plate with silica were prepared; a line was drawn with pencil about 1 cm above the bottom of the plate. Using a capillary tube, small drops of solvent were added to the plate leaving then the solvent evaporate (the smaller the diameter of the spot, the more accurate the results).
As it is the part of the eye that is responsible for central vision, sufferers therefore lose their ability to use their central vision. There are two types of AMD; Dry AMD and Wet AMD. Dry AMD develops when there is a build-up of waste products called drusen. A build-up of these waste products result in the damage of light cells of the macular leaving you with blurry central vision. Wet AMD however is a more severe case of AMD which develops due to abnormal blood vessels growing under the macular, believed to be caused because of a misguided attempt to clear the waste products.
Next, is the verification and determination of pure liquids. A clean and dry a 25mL graduated cylinder must be gathered from the lab cart, weigh the dry cylinder to the nearest mg and record the data. Add distilled water to the cylinder making sure the water level is at above the 20mL mark but below the 25mL mark. Determine and record the temperature of the water in the cylinder. Then, reweigh the cylinder to the nearest milligram.
The ester studied was “3,” the acid used was 9.5 mL of “B,” and the alcohol used was 18.1 mL of “C.” A few substances were added to augment the production of the ester. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was added using a dropper bottle to catalyze the reaction. The desiccant in this reaction was drierite and was used to absorb the water byproduct. This prevented the ester from breaking apart into its constituents. The cold finger condenser was used to trap evaporated gas from the heated mixture, and condense it back into
To make sure this doesn’t happen, there needs to be more trials to increase the precision of the results. Abstract The purpose of the lab was to determine what each of nice substances was based upon how they reacted with other chemicals as well as their pH levels. By using the given clues, the reaction with Litmus paper, and the precipitates formed by different mixtures, the chemicals were identified. Substance 1 was found to be BaCl , substance 2 was determined to be NaOH, and substance 3 was labeled as CuSO .
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
This was especially important in the measurement of liquids, with +/- 0.05 millilitre differences in either the Hydrogen or the distilled water. Since these two liquids get added together, the error values add to create an overall uncertainty sum. This therefore provides the ASS and solution combined an error uncertainty of +/- 0.1mL. Due to the nature of this experiment however, this error is neglect able and the general trends form with high
Two chemical reactions are carried by adding sodium hydroxide to the acidic solution from Part I. During the first reaction is the neutralization of the excess of nitric acid in the mixture by sodium hydroxide. The second reaction takes the place after naturalization is a complete and NaOH is in excess. While the liquid inside the beaker is being stirred, with the stirring rod, 10 ml of 6 M NaOH is poured into the solution from Part I at 1 mL at a time. After each 1 mL the solution is tested for acidity with red litmus paper.
What happens during this stage of the experiment showing visual change and acidic reaction that is becoming weaker as the molecules are deprotonated to become equal parts within the solution. So by finding the molar ratios we learned that acid to base are 1:1 when equally balance or concentrated. So therefore concentrations at stoichiometric end point can be found by plugging in the values to formulate a dilution equation as seen above. When expressing calculations I found when doing the Titration of an Unknown Acid I discovered that with .1 mL of Sodium Hydroxide and at least 10 mL Anthocyanin as/or acetic solution will produce an average molarity of 0.9 or higher according to my
The acid catalyst then deprotonates the alcohol so it could retain its neutral charge and then the acid protonates the other hydroxide group, to produce H2O which separates from the main compound to stabilize its own charge and then carbocation rearrangement occurs to form a pi bond.
50 μL of these dilution solutions were separated on the TLC plate coated with SNISG. The plate was developed with petroleum ether: ethyl acetate (4:1) and the movement of solvent was usually controlled at 1 cm from the upper edge. After completion, the plate was dried until no solvent smell remained. It was sprayed with an ethanol solution containing 10% sulfuric acid, and heated at an infra-red drier until obvious color came up, as shown in Fig.2 (B.ab). Simultaneously, the amount of silver nitrate in the impact of isolative effect was investigated with the sample procedure, as shown in Fig.2
Introduction: The objective of the experiment is to determine the limiting reagent in a chemical reaction. The principles of stoichiometry and limiting reagents will be used to predict the amount of product formed. The amount of product formed and the change in the color of the solution upon mixing of two reactants are being used to predict the limiting reagent and calculate the theoretical yield in grams. My hypothesis was that with the reaction of the zinc with the copper sulfate solution that it would dissolve the zinc to determine the limiting reagent.