After 10 minutes, the solution was deleaded by adding potassium oxalate crystals in excess and the volume was made up to a known amount with distilled water and filtered through whatman No. 1 filter paper. The filtrate was taken in a burette and titrated against boiling Fehling’s mixture (5 ml of Fehling’s solution A + Fehling’s solution 5 ml of B) till the blue colour faded. Then one ml of methylene blue indicator (1 per cent) was added and the titration was continued till the contents attained a brick red colour and titre value was noted. The percentage of reducing sugar was calculated according to the following
To each sample solution (1.0 ml) and the standard (gallic acid) was added 5 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu (sigma-aldrich) and 4 ml sodium carbonate (7% w/v) and shaken. The solution could stand for 30 min in the dark at room temperature, after which absorbance was measured at 765 nm using a spectrophotometer. The phenolic content was calculated from the standard curve of gallic acid15. Total Flavonoid Content A known volume of extract was placed in a 10ml volumetric flask add distilled water to make final volume 5 ml followed by adding 0.3 ml NaNO2(1:20). Add 3ml AlCl3 (10%) 5 min later.
188.8.131.52-Extraction method No.2: Fifty grams of powdered aerial parts of portulaca oleracea extracted by soxhlet with 500ml 0f 70% ethanol for 8 hr. then the extract cool at room temperature ,filter and evaporate to dryness by rotatory evaporator at 60ºC .The dried extract hydrolyzed by reflux with 250 ml of 2N of hydrochloric acid for 3 hr. The final extract cool at room temperature ,filter then partitioning with ethyl acetate three times each one with 50 ml of ethyl acetate ,combine the three lower layer and evaporate to dryness by rotatory evaporator to give the crude extract(12.765 gm) as shown in scheme
Another 5-mL test tube, labelled as B, was filled with 1 mL of distilled water. A drop of methyl red was added. Also, a 0.01M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was added in a dropwise manner from a syringe until the color of the solution matches that of the first test tube setup. The volume of the HCl used was recorded for the determination of the ionization constant of
MDA level was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum, based on the reaction between MDA and TBARS. Standard Malondialdehyde solution in 5 mL of volume was processed along with test samples. 1.5 mL of 0.8% of TBA was added to 1 mL of the serum sample. Then 0.4 mL of 8.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate and 1.5 mL of acetic acid was added. The mixture was finally made upto 5 mL with distilled water and placed in hot water bath at 95ºC for 1 h. After cooling, 1 mL of distilled water and 5 mL of the mixture of n-butanol and pyridine (15:1, v/v) was added.
Experimental Methods: 1. SYNTHESIS OF 4-BENZOYL BUTYRIC ACID METHYL ESTER Materials required * 5 oxopentanoic acid : 2 gm (Aldrich) * Methanol : 50 ml * Acetic Acid (Rankem) Procedure: * 2 grams of 5 oxopentanoic acid was weighed and placed in a round bottom flask and then to it 50 ml of methanol was added. It was placed on a hot plate and the temperature was increased to 50 degrees under ambient air conditions. * To the RB, 2 ml of acetic acid was added and then by attaching a condenser the entire reaction was put on refluxing at 70 degrees Celsius in an oil bath. * For work up: * The reaction media was concentrated till about 10 ml and then dry silica gel was added.
Then get the Acetic acid and pour exactly 100mL of it into the graduated cylinder (This should almost fill it up). When that is completed repeat steps 1 and 2 four more times, which would mean five graduated cylinders of 100mL of Acetic acid. Part 3: Carrying out the reaction Wash the 250mL-beaker and dry it with paper towels. Add one of the 4.2 grams of catalyst (Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate) that has been obtained in step one into the beaker. Making sure that the beaker is dry before hand.
Two drops of Tween-80 was added to aid the emulsification process. Prepared emulsion was analysed for its quality characteristics before spray drying. 2.2.1 Quality Characteristics of Emulsion 184.108.40.206. Emulsion viscosity Viscosity of emulsions was determined using rotational viscometer (M/s Fungi lab, Spain) at room temperature (28 ± 20C). It was measured by taking 50g emulsion in a beaker.