There were four rows in each plot, which the row width and length was 0.6 and 6 m, respectively. At third leaf stage, plants were thinned for the appropriate final stand of 160000plants ha-1. The applied factors consist of sweet sorghum varieties (KFS2 and KFS3), top removal treatments (control, mechanical removal and chemical removal with ethephon) and magnesium sulfate rates (0, 4 and 8 mM). Sweet sorghum varieties are new hybrids released in Iran. Magnesium sulfate levels sprayed at the rapid plants growth stage that was approximately 60 days after planting and repeated in 10 days later.
Spray the chilli plants in their fourth leaf growth stage with spore suspension containing 3 × 105 conidia ml−1 (15 ml/pot). Spray the non inoculated plants with distilled water containing same amount of Tween 20 (0.02 %). After spraying, keep both inoculated and non inoculated plants in a moist chamber with 98−100% relative humidity for 24 hours. Seven days after inoculation, evaluation of the wilt disease severity is based on visual assessment of lesions caused R. solani on a nine grade scale according to IRRI standards (2002). Disease severity for each replication was calculated according to the equation below (Cai et al.,
The flask was then vented. The shaking and venting of the flask was further repeated several times to remove as much CO2 from the soft drink sample as possible. Now the 100 mL beaker was taken and 10.0 mL of the soft drink was measured into it. To this 100 mL beaker, 25 mL of distilled was
Research Questions: What effect does acid rain have on the growth rate of plants in the wetland ecosystem? What results are expected? What is your conclusion? Hypothesis: Acid rain will have a negative impact on the plant growth in the wetland environment, this will result in plants dying and
Every day, the numbers of leaves of the duckweed were counted, which determined if the plant was still alive. The results showed that more plants died in the rainwater with more drops of AAR than the distilled water. Background of the Study Water and atmospheric
Acid rain makes waters acidic and causes them to absorb the aluminum that makes its way from soil into lakes and streams. This combination makes waters toxic to crayfish, clams, fish, and other aquatic animals. Some species can tolerate acidic waters better than others. However, in an interconnected ecosystem, what impacts some species eventually impacts many more throughout the food chain—including non-aquatic species such as birds. Acid rain also damages forests, especially those at higher elevations.
The mode of action of lantana toxin appears to be by inhibiting the active secretion of bile canaliculi in liver and result secondary photosensitization in all grazing animals (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998). Due to its strong allopathic properties, aggressiveness and its dense impenetrable thorny thickets, Lantana camara has the potential to interrupt the health and regeneration process of other species by decreasing germination, growth of seedlings and biomass production which in turn increases mortality and decline of plant species, pasture and crops (Gentle and Duggin, 1998; Catherine and Russell, 2005; Sharma et al., 2005; Sharma and Raghubanshi, 2006). Lantana camara was introduced to Ethiopia as an ornamental plant due to its beautiful aromatic flowers (Binggeli and Desalegn, 2002). However, because of prolific seed production and easy dispersal, it escaped cultivation and become a pest in the social, ecological and economic concerns. Presently, it has spread almost all over the country, but still it is not much perceived as a chronic environmental problem, except in few parts of Ethiopia, such as Oromia and Somali regions (Binggeli and Desalegn,
Mining requires the removal of topsoil containing valuable organic matters. The removal of topsoil causes the land to be barren which are unsuitable for cultivation and unproductive, which is a kind of land pollution. Due to urbanization, many construction activities are taking place. Waste materials such as wood, metal and plastic often being left at the construction site. When deforestation is committed, the green cover which helps in balancing the atmosphere is reduced and it leads to natural disasters such as global warming, flash floods and green house effect.
The adverse effects of waterlogging are creation of anaerobic condition in the crop root-zone, growth of water loving wild plants, impossibility of tillage operations, accumulation of harmful salts, lowering of soil temperature, reduction in time of maturity. We can say that the waterlogging effects in such a way when there is a satisfactory of the aeration of the soil produce the required nitrates from the nitrogenous compounds present in the soil produce by the bacteriological activities that helps the crop growth. Anaerobic condition in the soil creates by extreme moisture content. The plant roots do not get the required nourishing food or nutrients due
When it rains, the water droplets integrate with these air pollutants, so it becomes acidic and then drops on the ground in the shape of acid rain ("Environmental pollution," n.d.). Therefore, acid rain causes great harm for greens and crops. The greens and crops are damaged leads to lower production, increase poverty, and provide lung problems. Dropping the sales in the supermarkets and reducing the gain happened by lower production of crops. Consequently, that causes poverty by having no food to people eat.