The aim of this lab is to determine the concentration of a potassium hydrogen phthalate solution (HKC8O4H4) using acid‐base titration. Introduction: Titration is a technique that chemists use to determine the unknown concentration of a known solution (we know what chemical is dissolved, but not how much in a solution). Because we know what the chemical is, we know how it will react with other chemicals and we can use that reaction to determine the concentration of the solution by measuring the formation of product(s). In the case of an unknown concentration of acid, we can use a known concentration of hydroxide base. This type of reaction is a neutralization reaction, where salt and water are products of the reaction: Acid + Base Salt +
If the concentration of the H+ ion is greater than the concentration of the OH- ion, the solution is said to be ________. a. Acidic c. alkaline (basic) b. Neutral d. saturated 10. If the concentration of the H+ ion is equal to the concentration of the OH- ion, the solution is said to be ________.
The water content is determined based on the dry weight alginate that is a percentage of the dry weight of the initial weight. Ash Content Ash content analysis performed by gravimetric methods AOAC (1990), by burning the sample at 600 oC. Alginate ash content expressed as a percentage by weight of ash to the dry sample weight. Analysis of Pb and Hg Determination of Pb and Hg performed according to the method James (1995), using the tool Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The
A titration is the precise addition of a solution from a buret into an accurately measured volume of a sample solution. A titrant is the solution in the buret that is used for the titration, and the volume of the solution is known. The titrants used in this lab were 0.1M hydrochloric acid and 0.1M sodium hydroxide (the reactions can be seen in figure 4). A Bronsted-Lowry acid is a compound that donates a proton. A Bronsted-Lowry base is a compound that accepts a proton.
Theory: The acid value can be defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free fatty acids present in one gram of fat. It tells about the measure of rancidity as free fatty acids are normally formed by the decomposition of oil glycerides. The acid value is expressed as percent of oleic acid, lauric or palmitic acid. Principle: The determination of acid value is based on the principle of directly titrating the oil in an alcoholic medium against potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide solution. Analytical importance: The value is the relative measure of the amount of fatty acids that have been liberated due to the hydrolysis of the glycerides as a result of action of moisture, temperature and/or lypolytic enzyme lipase.
Sample preparation is very important as some elements that are in the body can cause toxicity due to their concentration level. That is why the preparation of sample is based on the sample itself. Thus, atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to identify the level of concentrations that are present in the body. They are commonly used to analyze the presence of arsenic, mercury and lead concentration in the body. For example, atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to measure the level of sodium and potassium electrolyte present in the plasma.
The high ash content is also an indication of low degree of coalification and hence immaturity of the coal (Onoduku, 2014). According to Lin et al. (2011), original coal ashes contain various kinds of minerals; coexist as crystal and non-crystal minerals at different temperatures. The agglomeration of ash may be influenced by parameters such as the chemical composition, particle size, size distribution, bed temperature, atmospheric condition (Haykiri-Acma and Yaman, 2013) and the content level; which in turn affects the operation of blast furnace and cupola. Industrial experience indicates that a 1 weight percent increase of ash in the coke reduces metal production by 2 or 3 weight percent (Price et al., 1997).
Composition is important because a number of compositions are possible. There should be small level of unwanted contaminants such as halogens, oxygen, metals etc. A second issue is that of fine and uniform thickness of film across the wafer. Another
The measurement of water is important in agriculture, irrigation drainage system. For a given area this is proportional to the depth of liquid water lost in a day from the whole area and evaporation is usually expressed in this way. Picture of evaporation Pan. Source UOG. RAIN