Mass flow rate of liquid is an important parameter to be measured and controlled in a process industry. In the present paper, the design of a PC based mass flow indicator has been studied using a well known temperature sensing IC AD590. The temperature sensing IC AD590 has been used as a flow sensing element and the effect of fluid temperature has been eliminated by using four identical IC units. Four IC units are connected in the differential mode. The output of the differential circuit is send to optoisolator circuit through a signal conditioner circuit.
There are a variety of ways in which flow can be measured including the use of a positive-displacement meter which can accumulate a fixed volume of fluid before it calculates the number of time the volume is filled in order to measure flow. Another method relies solely on forces that are produced by the flowing stream as it overcomes a known constriction, which indirectly calculates the flow rate in the system. Flow can be measured by measuring velocity over a known area. Velocity of fluid flow is affected by the viscosity of the liquid. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian are terms that categorize the viscosity of fluid flow.
Flow of gas is normally measured in term of mass per unit time. However, the volumetric flowmeters does not measure the mass flow rate directly. Volumetric flowmeters require information on the density and volumetric flow rate of fluid to calculate the volumetric flow
Following this, a more gradual input of flow is provided from the groundwater flow which was initially generated from the infiltration of the precipitation that occurred. Hydrographs are prepared either by automatic or manual monitoring of flow levels on an annual basis. Following the generation of a hydrograph for the river or stream, conclusions can be drawn of the behaviour of flow at the monitoring point, in turn allowing the analysis of flow behaviour for the potential hydro scheme to be
The RWH system performance for each simulation was then compared to identify the influence of the rainfall data duration and time period. 3. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 3.1. System performance based on rainfall data duration In order to determine the adequate rainfall data duration, the RWH system performance (VR) obtained from the long and short duration were calculated and compared. The rainfall data duration was considered adequate if the differences between the long and short duration do not exceed 5%.
Abstract Hydrocarbon reserves estimation is important in the petroleum industry because it is the basis for which many decisions are made. There are several methods traditionally used to estimate reserves but in 1995 Mattar and McNeil introduced a new procedure called the Flowing Gas Material Balance (FGMB). The FGMB is considered a convenient method because it uses data that is already obtained and quantifies the gas in place without having to shut-in the well and interrupt production. This paper proposes to apply the Flowing Gas Material Balance method for reserves estimation to gas fields in Trinidad and Tobago and make a comparison with traditional methods of reserves estimation to confirm the efficiency of its application. To do this,
In fact the molecules of water touching the hull are moving exactly with the hull (Hamlin, 1989, p. 49). Turbulent velocity profile in a pipe (Gillmer & Johnson, 1932, p. 215) By changing the diameters of the tubes, the flow rate, and the fluid kinematic viscosity, he was able to determine that the breakdown of the laminar flow into turbulence appeared to depend on a dimensionless combination of these variables that equalled approximately 2000, unless great care was taken not to disturb the incoming flow. Rn (critical)=PuD/µ≈ 2000 u = Average fluid velocity D = Pipe diameter µ = Dynamic viscosity of fluid The critical Reynolds number of about 2000 defines when transition from laminar to turbulent flow may being for internal pipe flow (Gillmer & Johnson, 1932, pp. 214-215). In simple terms, laminar flow is where viscous forces predominate and a turbulent flow is where viscous forces are overtaken by inertia forces.
Methodologies The statistical methods in this study include the non-parametric Mann-Kendall rank statistic method for trend analysis; the Pettitt-Mann-Whitney change-point statistics (Pettitt, 1979, 1980) to identify the hydrologic change points; and the Indicators of Hydrologic Alterations (IHA) program (Richter et al., 1996, 1998) to evaluate hydrologic alterations of flow and stage data in periods before and after change points. Hydrologic Alteration Analysis The analysis in this study adopted the IHA and Eco-flow statistical analysis. IHA statistics is the most commonly used method for hydrologic alteration analysis due to its simplicity in application. However, the eco-flow statistics have been proved to be more efficient to avoid redundancy
2.5 METHODS OF WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS Water quality data may be interpreted on the basis of the both individual analysis and sets of analysis from one sampling site or different sampling sites in an area or aquifer being examined. In the case of individual analysis, the first step is the exanimation to accuracy, followed by estimation of source, mass balance examination of the minerals that may have dissolved or precipitated. Collectively, water analysis may be compared and interpreted using areal plots, graphical methods, and statistical analysis. Statistical analysis are usually separated into those useful for qualitative comparisons, for example, stiff diagrams, and those designed to detect chemical tends or mixing such as Piper or Durov
Morphometric Analysis of the Catchment 3.1 Morphometric analysis The morphometric analysis of the drainage basin and channel network play an important role in understanding the geo-hydrological behavior of drainage basin and expresses the prevailing climate, geology, geomorphology, structural antecedents of the catchment. (1) Morphometric analysis of a drainage basin requires the delineation of all the existing streams, digitization of the drainage basin was carried out for morphometric analysis in GIS. The attributes were assigned to create the digital data base for drainage layer of the basin. (1) 3.2 Uses of morphometric analysis of the catchment The drainage basin analysis is important in any hydrological investigation as assessment of groundwater potential, groundwater management, pedology and environmental assessment. The morphometric analysis has been carried out about parameters as stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, stream length ratio, basin length, drainage density, stream frequency, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor, basin relief, relief ratio, channel gradient using mathematical formulae as given in table below.