While Parahoo describes, a research design as “a plan that describes how, when and where data are to be collected and analysed” (Parahoo, 1997). Others also confirm that the research design is descriptive in nature. A research design can also be defined as “the researcher’s overall for answering the research question or testing the research hypothesis” (Polit & Hungler, 2013). This study used descriptive research. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984).
Before going in detail of the above important paradigms of research, it is very necessary to have a look on the word “paradigm”. “A paradigm is a pattern, method or system on which a researcher thinks and precedes his/ her research”. According to Rossman & Rollis “paradigm is shared understanding of reality”. It’s a way of thinking and observing. Everyone has his / her own way of observing and interpreting.
Now, after going through the qualitative research methods course, discussion in the classroom, going through different literature and based on the new learning, I realized that the theoretical framework for any research is beliefs of the researchers. It could be about the about the nature of reality, the sources of knowledge and how is that knowledge gained. I also learned that these beliefs are interlinked with the research paradigm, methodology, methods and tools for data collection. The different research paradigms / framework are interpretivist/ constructivist, post-positivism, pragmatism and critical inquiry. The approaches include; case study, ethnography, life history, case history, phenomenology, grounded theory etc.
4 METHODOLOGY: 4.1 STUDY DESIGN The research approach that will be employed for this research study will be in a case study form. The researcher will make use of a qualitative literature assessment approach as it will enable the researcher to use relevant literature to review an existing- or suggest a new hypothesis (Kothari:2004). Research will be analytical and instrumental, using existing information and knowledge; as well as applied, in order to find a solution to the immediate problem. 4.2 CASE STUDY The use of a case study method has been chosen by the researcher. According to Yin, (Yin: 2003a) the case study has the strength of being able to collect evidence from multiple sources citing that either qualitative data, quantitative data
Dr. Ogden’s Unit 3 “Behavior Change,” (2017) discussed some of the ways in which behavior can be changed using the four main theoretical perspectives. The four main theoretical perspectives are: learning theory (with added cognitions), social cognition theory and use of planning, using motivational interviewing to move people through the stages of change and using emotion in a positive way by using visual images. In this week’s readings, I learned about models of influencing behavior change, which include financial incentives and the use of mass media. The learning theory (with added cognition) which is one of the four main theories informing behavior change implies that any behavior is learned through three main mechanisms which are; modeling
This chapter presents the methodology employed to collect data and achieve the objective of the study. The major components of the methodology are the profile of the study area, research design, research population, sampling method, research instruments and methods for collection and analysis of data. 3.1 Research design Research can also be classified as exploratory, descriptive or explanatory (Stangor, 2007). A research design constitutes the blueprint for fulfilling research and answering questions. It includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing research questions and their operational implication to the final data analysis.
1 Methodology This chapter provides an overview on the research methodology used for this master thesis. It is divided into the explanation of the type of research design as well as the approach chosen, information on how data was collected, and how this data was then subsequently analyzed in order to derive conclusions. For the present research study, I chose a qualitative research strategy. This derives from the fact, that qualitative research allows to conduct in-depth studies throughout a wide range of topics (Yin, 2011, p. 6). Furthermore, it allows to investigate and understand the context within which people live and behave (Myers, 2009, p. 5).
The frameworks simply list implementation variables, or illustrate them graphically and then further describe each variable and note its relevance in the implementation process. By contrast, some researchers subscribed to the process approach to implementation, with framework substantiated by rules and resources (Li et al. : 2008). Based on Skivington and Daft’s (1991) study, Noble (1999) viewed strategy implementation research from a structural perspective; emphasising organizational structure and control mechanisms; and the interpersonal process perspective; relating to emphasising strategic consensus, strategic behaviour, diffusions perspectives, leadership and implementation style, communication and interaction process. There are distinct similarities between the frameworks presented by previous studies in terms of the key factors brought forward and the assumptions inferred.
Quantitative research method is used to conduct this study .References are made throughout the study in order to build on the previously established knowledge. Only articles with quantitative studies were taken into account, as the main focus was to survey consumer perceptions and impact of augmented reality. Such an approach towards a literature review (classiﬁcation based on technologies' effects on users) has been conducted in previous reviews (Varadarajan et al., 2010; Voorveld et al., 2009).The quantitative method implies the collection of numerical data and analyze the relationships between the variables by using standardized statistical techniques (Saunders et al., 2012, p162-163).The main aim of the collect data from our research question that a quantitative method is the most appropriate
Action research is conducted by the practitioner himself, whereas traditional research is led by an outsider. The purpose of traditional research is to develop new knowledge, and it relies on peer review of methods and results; action research, on the other hand, is meant to solve practical problems and improve practice; it is research resulting in desired