Action Research Methodology

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To better suit the nature of the present investigation, the research objectives, and the suitability of methodology, the researcher opted for non-probability sampling method. Moreover, the focus was put on a combination of two sampling techniques namely purposive or purposeful technique for the ESP learners and convenience sampling for the ESP teachers.
Being considered as both appropriate method and technique for an action research (Cohen et al., 2000; Tomal, 2010) for selecting “ …those subjects who are the specific individuals for whom improvement is desired’ Tomal (2010:30 ), the researcher took into in account the following criteria for sampling a group of second-year students at the preparatory school of Economics and Commercial Sciences-
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Approaches, therefore, have increasingly received considerable attention by methodologists due to their important roles.

In this purpose, several types of research design have been identified namely Naturalistic and ethnographic research; Historical research; Survey, longitudinal, cross-sectional and trend studies; Correlational research; Ex post facto research, Experiments, quasi-experiments and single case research; Action research (Cohen et al., 2000). Each type is characterized by its unique features and specific methodology.

3.4.1. Action Research Methodology

Due to the nature of the present study, the focus was put on an action research. It is therefore of paramount importance to review the available literature. This type of research is widely believed to be a reflective inquiry based on systematic practice undertaken by the researcher who is the teacher at the same time with the overall aim of changing and improving his own teaching and learning process. In this regard, Burns (2010:5) quoted Cornwell’s definition (1999:05) of action
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Action Research Model (adapted from Norton, 2009)
Adopting Norton’s (2009) action research model, five stages were followed in this research work:
Stage one: this initial step was mainly a diagnostic one, based on the identification of a problem. The researcher, thus, felt the urgent need to bridge the gap between the academic and professional requirements of the second-year learners at the Preparatory School of Economics and Commercial Sciences. She made the telling point that learners in Business educational contexts do not only need to achieve their short-term objectives which currently cover the success in their exams. However, they were expected, as well, to support their language ability through the use of up-dated materials.
In addition to this, business is considered as a discipline that requires too much interaction on both national and international scales. Thus, for better communication to occur between members of the same/ different discourse communities, it is of great necessary to transmit messages either through verbal or non-verbal interaction using one or more skills (reading, writing, speaking and listening). Therefore, whatever skill is performed, learners are required not only the linguistic competence, but also being aware of the cultural aspect that may break down the

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