Activated Carbon Research Paper

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Over the centuries,activated carbon has been used as an adsorbent and purify in water. In India, during 450 B.C. charcoal filter is used to treat water. It can be produced through the use of raw carbon resources like coal and peat, and Waste-product materials such as shells of coconut and sawdust.Activated carbon also called as activated charcoal is a carbon that undergone to processes so it will have small and low-volume pores that increase the surface area for adsorption.

Two way to produce activated carbon are physical and chemical activation. In physical activation, under passive atmosphere the material is carbonized, and as the activating reagent

Use carbon dioxide or steam.while in chemical activation, different chemicals are used to help with the initial dehydration.(Toles et al., 2000)

Activated carbon adsorption
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This is a chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons from the activated carbon surface to the residual disinfectant. In other words,activated carbon acts as a reducing agent. Activated carbon's removal of chlorine reduces the chlorine to a non-oxidative chloride ion. The reaction is very fast and takes place in the first few inches of a new activated carbon bed. (Where removal of organics by activated carbon takes minutes, removal of chlorine literally takes seconds). The chlorine capacity of new activated carbon is 1 pound of chlorine per pound of carbon at a flow rate of 3 to 5 gpm/cu.ft. and a bed depth of 3 feet.

Chloramine removal by activated carbon is a much slower reaction. The predominant species of chloramine in city water supplies (pH about 7 to 8) is monochloramine. The reaction with activated carbon and monochloramine also renders a non-oxidative chloride ion. Since the rate of reaction is considerably slower, the flow rate should be 0.5 gpm/cu.ft. and the bed depth greater than 3

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