Active Learning Pedagogy

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Summary: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in terms of learners’ learning efficacy in developing crisis leadership qualities. Empirical evidence in the study proves that active learning pedagogy enhances learners’ learning efficacy. Relationship: Active learning pedagogy and learning efficacy are related as the design of lessons affects how well learners absorb information and learn. Implicit Issue: There is an emerging need to utilise active learning pedagogy to facilitate effective development of crisis leadership qualities.

Theoretical Perspectives: Technology Enabled Learning (TEL), REusable Active Learning (REAL) as well as Peer Assessment are to be adopted for constructive lessons
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This evidence is pertinent as it justifies how the study revolves around the military context to draw insights and findings on crisis leadership qualities.
In the literature review, it was asserted that Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) can be administered as it is a shorter self-report measure of emotional intelligence. However, as WLEIS was constructed through the study of students in Hong Kong, its relevance in Singapore was not validated in this study. Research has shown that there is non-invariance of a factor of WLEIS ‘use of emotion’ between Hong Kong and Singapore (Libbrecht, N., Beuckelaer, A. D., Lievens, F. & Rockstuhl, T.,
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This assumption is valid as the number of millennial learners who are not proficient in using technology is insignificant (Monaco, 2007).

Self-critique:
Previously, non-invariance was found for one component of WLEIS to be used in Singapore. Nevertheless, this non-invariance is slight and WLEIS proves to still be relevant as it has been statistically proven that the other three components are applicable in Singapore (Libbrecht, N., Beuckelaer, A. D., Lievens, F. & Rockstuhl, T., 2014).
Also, the existence of central tendency in learners’ rating of pre-lesson knowledge is not crucial as central tendency may exist for the other ratings learners complete as well, such as in their post-lesson rating.
Although it has been mentioned that the findings from the participants may be inaccurate due to the Hawthorne effect, there is no necessity to refute the study henceforth because there is no factual basis for such an effect (Rice, 1982). Moreover, research has also warned against relating studies on Hawthorne effect that is not the original Hawthorne studies as there may be notable differences (Ritch,
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