Wilkerson is currently using the traditional costing system. “Companies that use the traditional costing method assume that the volume metric is the underlying driver of manufacturing overhead cost.” Traditional product costing was established when direct material costs and direct labor costs accounted for the bulk of product costs incurred inside a firm. In the Wilkerson company, materials and labor costs are centered around the prices of materials and labor rates. The two factors that demonstrate that the traditional system may produce estimates that are different than that of the unit cost are high overheads and indirect cost
By changing product strategy, it needs to increase prices or lessen the range of products offered whereas, if company chooses to change strategic capabilities, it will need to have continuous improvement of value chain or improve product design. Sadly, adapting competitive pressure is simpler than changing strategic capability. An important lesson to be learnt from continuous process improvement is that changing product strategy competitive pressure is a short-term solution. This is because company has the decision to give up markets or increase prices so it may benefit in the short-run, but, majority of a company’s strength lies in a superior ability to contribute value to customers which is due to company’s consistency in improving strategic capabilities. Therefore, increasing strategic capabilities through continuous improvements is through activities that will decrease or eliminate batch-level activities, lessen batch-sizes and reducing non-functional differences between products.
Outline the similarities and differences between the Single Index Model (SIM) and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). Justify which of the two models makes a better assessment of return of a security (25 marks). To reduce a firm’s specific risk or residual risk a portfolio should have negative covariance or rather it should have no variance at all, for large portfolios however calculating variance requires greater and sophisticated computing power. As such, Index models greatly decrease the computations needed to calculate the optimum portfolio. The use of such Index models also eliminates illogical or rather absurd results.
By looking further into costs the awareness should increase (Antikainen, Roivainen, Hyvärinen, Toivonen, & Kärri, 2005). Knowing what each activity costs opens up an opportunity that allows managers to improve and therefore reduce the cost where possible (Cooper & Kaplan, 1991). Overall, changing the system at G.G. toys could enhance their performance as ABC-costing system has been linked to both the product being of better quality and the cycle time being shorter (Ittner, Lanen & Larcker, 2002). Cooper and Kaplan (1991) discuss that having an ABC costing system could have a financial gain for companies.
According to them, the lower cost of production will eventually lead to a decrease in the price of the product, thus the increased demand derived from this will result in higher profit that could be invested in employee benefits. However, a study by McKinsey found that two thirds of those economic benefits spill back to the United States (Schroedder and Aepeal, 2003) Besides, offshoring can create jobs in a developing country, building a strong economic base, increase domestic consumption and encourage imports from developed countries such as the USA. Moreover, offshoring helps companies concentrate on their core business area and skilled manpower at an affordable price. Countries like India benefit from this kind of outsourcing creating employment for highly qualified personnel, making it the center of software development services industry. However, there are also negative views on offshoring.
There are 2 advantages of the target cost pricing: one is setting the expected costs as the pricing basis can enhance the competitive power of commodity prices; the other one is that the target cost formulation has good elasticity that can help enterprises explore their potential. And on the side of consumer, company can price the product more acceptable. That would help to popularize Lucozade(Red). Profit Margins Profit Margin is a percentage of profitability calculated as Net Profit (Net Profit = Revenue-Cost) divided by Revenue. People use it to measure how much the company actually earn out of sales.
However, there will be trade-offs to consider. An outsourced process, especially a production process, will incur added costs. There may be a need to pay more for transportation and delivery, as well as potentially paying more for raw materials. However, the trade-off idea is that these additional costs will be less than the savings produced by outsourcing the specific
• By building economies of scale so that it can lower the fixed cost per unit. • Building capacities and spending money on research and development. New entrants are less likely to enter a dynamic industry where the established players such as Twitter, Inc. keep defining the standards regularly. It significantly reduces the window of extraordinary profits for the new firms thus discourage new players in the industry. Bargaining Power of
Hence, variances are analysed by shaping how much differences have impacted the revenue and profits (Horngren, 2012). This specific aspect is essential for accounting managers of easyJet that takes the correct strategic direction, which is required to prevail over the issues before to cut the profits too much. Thus, variance analysis occurs with the finding rate. Another aspect is activity based costing as it has modelling system that is found in manufacturing firms. The main issue with this aspect is manufacturing firms has to focus on valuing inventory as easyJet cannot do but use standard costs, which is calculated for direct materials and labours.
When considering the varying application of technology in the workplace, the middle and lower skill roles remain subject to the most replacement. Their routine information processing, calculations, and decision making make them the most susceptible in the advent of cheap, powerful computers and greater access to data (Gibbs 5). Labor market polarization is creating a gap in job availability between lower and middle skill tasks against those of higher skill sets; however, the question remains as to how job availability may shift as a result of automation. While “manufacturers operating in a high-wage country commonly seek to reduce cost through large automated equipment,” a high utilization of such methods makes it impossible to synchronize production with demand (Ketokivi et al. 2).