Name: Chan So Shan Student No: 11388277 Course: ENVR S411 Question 1 1a) Lead is a heavy metal that bring many health problem to us containing impaired kidney function as well as cognitive deficit, especially in children. Therefore, lead leakage is a big issue to us since it may profoundly and long-term affect our health.
Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) leads to symptoms of the disease. How this loss occurs is not known, but generation of ROS are considered important mediators. Oxidation of dopamine by enzymes leads to the formation of H2O2, which is usually inactivated in a reaction involving glutathione, but can react with Fe2+ and form highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. In PD, GSH levels have been reported to be decreased in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the severity of the disease correlates with GSH loss. How this oxidative stress occurs is not well understood, as GSH synthase levels have been shown to be normal in the substantia nigra.
Hepcidin is the major regulator of iron in the human body. Iron can also be used in the mitochondria in the synthesis of iron-sulfur cluster and heme. Heme in the mitochondria is found in the cytochrome used in the electron transport chain. Iron also place a role in the cofactor of an enzymatic reaction in the central nervous
DDT was widely used after World War 2 for pest control. It is a potent neurotoxin; therefore it damages the nervous system. It can cause impaired motor function and impaired cognition. It has also been linked to numerous other conditions such as infertility and cancer. What are the health effects of pesticides on humans?
The misuse of drugs has become one of the major challenges to face the UK Government as it not only affects user’s personal-health but it also has a large negative impact on communities (Nutt et al., 2007). In 1971 due to the rising problems encountered in regards to drug misuse the Government passed the Misuse of Drugs Act (MDA). The act created three main classes labelled A, B, and C. Controlled substances that fall under class A (i.e. cocaine, heroin, MDMA) are deemed to be the most harmful to the users and others and carry strict penalties for possession (Up to 7 years in prison, an unlimited fine or both) and intent to supply (Up to life in prison, an unlimited fine or both) (MDA, 1971). Controlled substances in class B (i.e. cannabis,
These conditions may denature the enzyme, decreasing its rate of reaction. A conformational change to the activity site of an enzyme will cause the activity of the enzyme to decline significantly. This is because substrate a change in the conformational of the active site of an enzyme prevents the substrate from binding to the enzyme. Sodium chloride affects the charged interactions interactions between the amino acids of the enzyme, deteriorating the active site of the enzyme. However, the enzyme will only deteriorate if there is a high concentration of sodium chloride and not if S3odium chloride is simply present.
Rhabdomyolysis: an imbalance of toxins in blood due to the breakdown on skeletal muscle, could be just that. This disease can affect athletes of all ages and has devastating consequences. When, for instance a wrestler is hit hard on the mat and he injures a muscle, we normally wait for a bruise to arise and figure it will be gone quite soon. This impact on the muscle can actually lead to muscle damage or muscle death. The death of skeletal muscle tissue can leak poisonous intramuscular toxins such as myoglobin and creatine kinase (CK) into the blood stream and have you in the hospital within hours (Torres 2015).
Drug ice users experience the loss of appetite, Nausea, psychosis, seizures, and may cause death from the extreme usage of high doses. Heavy Users who have repeated the usage of the ice drug over time, suffers from the plenty of bad damages that occurred in their body; In other words, addiction to the usage of the ice drug, creates more toxicity in the human’s body. Addiction to the ice drug and its consequences does unlimited damage to the blood vessels of heart and brain, such as strokes, Liver, Kidney, and lung damage; depression, weight loss, severe tooth decay, epilepsy, and the distortion of the face. All the consequences that are listed above leads to more significant consequences, such like blurring away the body’s skin, diminishes the function of the lungs and brain, as it results in insanity, hallucinations, hysteria, and being
Newman et al 2009 found that the chronic demyelination of can have an excitatory effect on the spinal cord and focal lesions found in the spinal cord are common in early onset signs of MS. Other less visible and subjective symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis reported by this group include fatigue, pain, depression, sleep disturbances and reported decreased quality of life. Initial symptoms include blurred or double vision in which the Optic and Oculomotor neurons of the brain are affected. Women are qualitatively diagnosed more often than men and Newman et al. 2009 assessed the pain perception of this group.
Research has found that enkephalins are scattered in GABAergic interneurons, with MORs and DORs inhibit granule cells because they are in very distinct subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons (11). On the other hand, dynorphins are in granule cells and dendrites and KOR agonists, which will consist of endogenous dynorphins, decrease long-term potentiation. KORs have also been found to regulate GABA release at the presynaptic sites of the neurons (K- opioid). GABA, being the main inhibitory
This type of plague is the most infectious and the most deadly. The third and final plague is the septicemic plague. In this form, the bacteria multiplies in the blood, causing gangrene, which is blood clots in the fingers and toes, and shock. The plague has also been associated with meningitis, or swelling of the brain and spinal