Cerebral edema is a life threatening homeostatic imbalance that may be caused by many things and can be treated if the diagnosis, recognition and management is timely. (ScienceDirect: Cerebral Edema) There are three categories of cerebral edema: vasogenic, cytotoxic and interstitial. Vasogenic edema happens when there is increased permeability of the blood brain barrier. Some of the most common vasogenic causes of edema include: brain tumors/abscesses, lead toxicity, stroke, diabetic ketoacidosis and hypercapnia. Cytotoxic edema is most commonly characterized by the swelling of neurons, glia and constriction of extracellular space.
Messerili et al. (2007) defined essential hypertension as a rise in blood pressure of unknown cause that increases risk for cerebral, cardiac, and renal events. Essential hypertension usually clusters with other cardiovascular risk factors such as ageing, being overweight, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia. Subtle target-organ damage such as left-ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and cognitive dysfunction takes place early in the course of hypertensive cardiovascular disease. Although catastrophic events such as stroke, heart attack, renal failure, and dementia usually happen after long periods of uncontrolled hypertension only.
The heart then has to overwork itself in order to pump this extra blood out of the lungs and will cause the heart muscle to enlarge, leading to high blood pressure and even heart failure if left untreated. Atrioventricular septal defect is
This results in the damage of brain cells and including the cells beyond the spill which then, aren’t able receive enough blood. Common causes of this type of hemorrhage are hypertension, trauma, and the use of blood thinners. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when an artery within the surface of the brain bursts and spills in the space between the surface of the brain and skull. The leakage is most commonly caused by an aneurysm. A transient ischemic attack is also known as TIA or “mini stroke”.
This process of remodeling can spread to the other ventricle and to the atria.  The long-term effects of the remodeling are a further weakening of the heart muscle and it can eventually lead to heart failure. There are many postulated causes of DCM, including pregnancy, diabetes, alcohol, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.  In 50%, the cause is not known (idiopathic DMC).  For this systematic review, we focus on the thyroid levels in patients with DCM.
Increased risk of heart disease, nerve damage, liver disease and even sexual performance issues. These issues are compounded with the amount of alcohol consumed and also the frequency of consumption. France and Italy both have a lower minimum drinking age than the U.S. and both have a higher death rate due to cirrhosis of the liver, which is primarily caused by alcohol consumption. The earlier an individual starts drinking will only further contribute to medical problems down the road. Although the science is constantly developed, and studies are still being conducted, one thing consistently being shown is the increased medical risk for
Mesothelioma Advice - Questions And Answers What is mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is cancer of the mesothelium. Like most cancers, mesothelioma involves the abnormal dividing of cells of a particular part of the body -- in this case, the mesothelium. Mesothelioma is so deadly because it remains dormant for many years and then begins to rapidly expand. The cancer then begins to invade and damage nearby tissue, including the vital organs.
This allow desaturated blood to shunt right to left side, causing desaturation in the left side of the heart and in the systemic circulation causing hypoxia and cyanosis. PULMONARY ATRESIA / PULMONARY STENOSIS Pulmonary Stenosis is the narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery causing right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Atresia is the severe form of pulmonary stenosis. Pathophysiology When Pulmonary Stenosis is present, resistant to blood flow cause right ventricular hypertrophy – right atrial pressure will increase – reopening of the foramen ovale, shunting of unoxygenated blood into the left atrium, systemic circulation. Clinical manifestation: Cyanosis, characteristic murmur , cardiomegaly .
Baby boomers are the demographic cohort, known as the generation that makes up the substantial portion of the world’s population. Individuals born during the time of 1946 to 1964 has lived in environments where smoking lead to a detrimental impact in their later years. As the third leading cause of death, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is common among the older population. This disease is the leading cause of both morbidity and mortality. Leading to a consensus that older adults (particularly baby boomers) are at a great risk of COPD because they grew up in an era where smoking was fashionable, cigarettes were provided during the wars, and exposure to secondhand smoke was tremendous.
It could cause events such as a stroke, blood clots and heart attacks. It slightly increases the chance of getting breast cancer. It can cause tumorous tumors to form and they hurt. Birth control pills could increase the serum lipids which makes your cholesterol rise up. If you smoke tobacco then the chances of a very harsh thrmbolic event will increase.