Acute Myocardial Infarction Research Paper

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ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
An acute MI occurs when myocardial cells have reached the threshold of ischemia; which in turn cause the body’s myocardial cell repair mechanism to first become overwhelmed and then to completely fail. When this mechanism fails, myocardial tissue necrosis causing irreparable tissue/cell death occurs. The following are possible contributors to myocardial ischemia and ultimately myocardial infarction (tissue necrosis and cell death):
• Increased myocardial metabolic demand which include: o Extremes in physical exertion o Severe hypertension o Obstructive Cardiomyopathy o Severe aortic stenosis o Other cardiac valvular disorders o Low cardiac output states associated with a decrease in aortic diastolic pressure
• Decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients to
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The presence of any risk factor is thought to double the relative risk for developing atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction. These risk factors include:
• High Blood Cholesterol – An elevated lipid level is major component of atherosclerotic plaque buildup which causes the development of an infarction.
• Diabetes Mellitus – Patients with diabetes have a considerably greater risk of developing atherosclerotic vascular disease at an accelerated rate. This acceleration occurs regardless of whether the patient has insulin dependent or non insulin dependent diabetes.
• Hypertension – High blood pressure has consistently been associated with an increased risk of developing an acute MI.
• Smoking – Tobacco contains certain components that are known to damage vessel walls. The body’s response to this damage elicits the formation of atherosclerosis thereby increasing the risk of an acute MI.
• Male gender – The incidence of developing an acute MI is more for men than women however; with age this risk

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