Messerili et al. (2007) defined essential hypertension as a rise in blood pressure of unknown cause that increases risk for cerebral, cardiac, and renal events. Essential hypertension usually clusters with other cardiovascular risk factors such as ageing, being overweight, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia. Subtle target-organ damage such as left-ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and cognitive dysfunction takes place early in the course of hypertensive cardiovascular disease. Although catastrophic events such as stroke, heart attack, renal failure, and dementia usually happen after long periods of uncontrolled hypertension only.
This allow desaturated blood to shunt right to left side, causing desaturation in the left side of the heart and in the systemic circulation causing hypoxia and cyanosis. PULMONARY ATRESIA / PULMONARY STENOSIS Pulmonary Stenosis is the narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery causing right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Atresia is the severe form of pulmonary stenosis. Pathophysiology When Pulmonary Stenosis is present, resistant to blood flow cause right ventricular hypertrophy – right atrial pressure will increase – reopening of the foramen ovale, shunting of unoxygenated blood into the left atrium, systemic circulation. Clinical manifestation: Cyanosis, characteristic murmur , cardiomegaly .
Cardiac tamponade is one of the cardiac emergencies which necessitates an urgent diagnosis and treatment to restore haemodynamics. Causes of tamponade may vary in etiology however almost all of them have a common clinical presentation. Spontaneous hemopericardium leading to cardiac tamponade is an unusual manifestation of thrombocytopenia and to the best of our knowledge ,there is no case of thrombocytopenic tamponade mentioned in the literature. We report a case of 64-years-old female who presented with cardiactamponade after coronary artery bypass surgery, as a probable result of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic episode and required emergent revision surgery. 1.
Thyroid dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy: A systematic review Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major health problem. The estimated prevalence of dilated cardiomyopathy is 1:2500.  DCM is one of the most common types of cardiomyopathy. The disease typically occurs between the age of 20-60.  DCM is a progressive disease of the heart muscle.
The use of angioplasty requires the procedure to be performed preferably within 90 minutes of the patient presenting to the emergency room, which most hospitals cannot be provided. For these cases thrombolysis is the best alternative, although it provides inferior outcome than angioplasty. The use of primary angioplasty for the treatment of STEMI was first described as a rescue treatment in the case of failed intracoronary thrombolysis, and was studied extensively as an adjunctive therapy. Primary angioplasty, without the use of thrombolytic treatment, was described in 1983.  In general terms, the procedure consists of feeding a deflated balloon or other device (e.g., stent) on a catheter from the inguinal femoral artery or radial artery up through blood vessels until they reach the site of blockage in the heart.
Steven Moore 3/12/2016 Atrial/Ventricular Septal Defect Repair Surgical Procedure Task An atrioventricular septal defect is a condition that results in a defect located in the middle of the heart. The condition takes place when a hole forms between the heart 's atrium and ventricular chambers. This defect causes complications and makes it difficult for the mitral valve to regulate blood flow in the heart. The deregulation of blood flow affects the lungs by allowing extra blood to flow into the organs. The heart then has to overwork itself in order to pump this extra blood out of the lungs and will cause the heart muscle to enlarge, leading to high blood pressure and even heart failure if left untreated.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition which affects the heart muscle. The left ventricle of the heart becomes enlarged which can result in the inefficiency of blood being pumped around the body. In Lily’s situation, this was a genetic condition however this condition may also be caused by viral infections, auto-immune disease or even pregnancy (British heart foundation, 2017). Development According to Feldman, (2004) children with chronic medical conditions are expected to require longer hospital stays. There are many issues which can impact childhood development on the hospitalised child.
reported that all patients who were immobilized due to blunt trauma had higher correlation to mortality (23%), this was also associate with an increased amount of CPR on arrival to the emergency department. Of the sample, 94% of cases suffered gunshot wounds. Among these cases, those who underwent c-spine immobilization had a higher unadjusted risk of death. This study argued that the use of a cervical collar may have negative effects clinically, it may mask clinical signs, access to injury and may impair efforts to intubate the patient. However, it was noted in this study that patients with a suspected C-spine injury with penetrating trauma had no significant correlation with an increased risk of death.
Cystic Fibrosis is a common and inherited disorder of the respiratory system. A mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene causes cystic fibrosis. This gene is located on chromosome seven, and this chromosome manages a chloride channel found in the tissues of the exocrine. If the channel is blocked, then thick secretion will build up in the lungs, and other organs and it will be extremely hard to eliminate. This can lead to severe issues, or even death.
Medication errors are amongst the most common healthcare mistakes and are a frequent source of unfortunate healthcare events in the quality of care. Medication errors lengthen the stay in hospitals, escalate inpatient expenditures, and in the United States cause more than 7,000 deaths yearly. One-third of all medical errors which occur in a hospital are from medication errors. Not all medication errors lead to morbidity or mortality; nonetheless, a relatively elevated prevalence makes the dilemma worth addressing. Each error can cost an estimated $2,000 to $8,750 (Anderson & Townsend, 2015).
The Effects of Sepsis Bundle on Mortality Rates: Background and Significance Historians in the medical field such as Hippocrates and Pasture have referenced symptomologies associated with sepsis of today (Angus & Van der Poll, 2013). Sepsis received its official definition of severe sepsis and septic shock in 1992; with terminology being based on the accompanying disease processes present (Angus & Van der Poll, 2013). The definition of severe sepsis indicates the presence of organ dysfunction along with sepsis. Additionally, septic shock is related to the presence of hypotension not responding to fluid resuscitation (Cawcutt, & Peters, 2014). A diagnosis of severe sepsis or sepsis shock has an increased risk of patient mortality, length of stay, and a higher probability of long-term disability (Cawcutt & Peters, 2014; Whittaker, et al.
The most common type of nosocomial infections are surgical wound infections, respiratory infections (such as ventilator-associated pneumonia), urogenital infections, as well as gastrointestinal infections. Wound and burn infections often nosocomial in nature. Hospital-acquired infections are a major source of morbidity, and even mortality to surgical patients. Immunocompromised patients, the elderly and young children are usually more susceptible than others. Nosocomial infections frequently occur after inhalation therapy, during use of indwelling catheters, transmission of communicable diseases between patients and healthcare workers, surgical procedures, injections, contamination of the health care environment (even the food or water provided at hospitals) or during use of chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive drugs.
Historically, World War I was the first war to utilize the increasingly dangerous methods of warfare such as trench warfare and biological weaponry, which significantly increased the death toll of the war. Accompanying these weapons was the first emphasis on war trauma-related mental illness, with soldiers returning from battle with PTSD, misnomered and misunderstood as ‘shell-shock’. Rates of PTSD climbed steadily after World War II and the Vietnam War as weaponry became more and more advanced, reaching 12% of soldiers who saw direct combat in the Gulf War being diagnosed with PTSD afterwards (cite). Clearly, there is a strong connection between advanced weaponry and mental illness in soldiers, proving that violent weaponry negatively affects those who are forced to encounter
The size of the embolus will determine how much of the pulmonary vascular system is affected and the seriousness of the pulmonary oedema (Peate, 2014). When a particular blood vessel is occluded, there will be an increase in hydrostatic and colloid pressure which will cause vascular permeability leading to blood moving into the interstitial space of the capillaries and alveolar via a concentration gradient (Peate, 2014). This will affect alveolar perfusion causing reduced oxygenation of pulmonary blood returning to the heart thus affecting myocardial and systemic
Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in 2009 were amongst 23,000 infections in the inpatient population of US hospitals. (Sweet, Cumpston, Briggs, Craig, & Hamadani, 2012) These infections increase morbidity of patients, mortality, and increase cost. Those that are at risk are the population with central venous catheters. This infection is commonly due to improper hub care and consequently provides the direct introduction of the bacteria into the blood stream. A fairly new intervention to prevent this morbid infection is the implementation of alcohol impregnated protective caps, otherwise known as the brand name Curos caps in addition to others.