The remaining 32.2% (n=56) was divided into : 24.1% (n=42) with 1 complication , 5.1% (n=9) with 2 complications and 2.8% (n=5) with 3 complications (fig 5). Chronic pancreatitis was the most common complication (44.6%) (n= 25) followed by pancreatic pseudocyst (30.3%) (n=17), while the illus and malabsorption were the less common ones (1.7%) (n=1). In western countries the chronic pancreatitis is also the commonest, while in Saudi Arabia diabetes mellitus is the most common one. No deaths among pancreatitis patients at SQUH in contrast to Saudi Arabia that found 12% percentage of deaths secondary to pancreatitis (Al-Karawi et al.,
Pancreatitis is confirmed by medical history, physical examination, and a blood test of amylase or lipase for digestive enzymes of the pancreas. Blood amylase or lipase levels are typically elevated 3 times the normal level during acute pancreatitis. In some cases when the blood tests are not elevated and the diagnosis is still in question, abdominal imaging, such as a computed tomography (CT) scan, might be needed. After diagnosis is confirmed, certain imaging tests might be performed during hospitalization or after to help identify the cause. Such tests include: Transabdominal ultrasound, Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and a Computerized tomography (CT).
Abstract Pancreatitis is an inflammation to the pancreas, generally how it is identified by the physical and diagnostic tests on what bases pancreatitis is divided, etiology and pathogenesis behind its occurrence and what type of treatment is taken for its cure on and life modifications for overcome this disease. Key words Pancreatitis, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis Pancreatitis Pancreas secret some digestive enzymes into duodenum through a tube called the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic enzymes join with bile to digest food not only digestive juices pancreas also secret some hormones like glucagon, insulin which help in the body regulate the glucose it takes from food for energy1 Pancreatitis is inflammation to pancreas normally; digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas do not become active until they reach the small intestine. In adverse conditions pancreas is inflamed, which leads to damage of the tissue which is characterized by the enzymes present inside it and this leads to pancreatitis It is divided into two types • Acute pancreatitis • Chronic pancreatitis Occurrence of pancreatitis differ with age and sex, race, Alcohol, Smoking (independent risk factor for acute and chronic pancreatitis, and its
Pathology behind development of acute pancreatitis in patients after organophosphorous ingestion is not very clear. Pancreatic ductal hypertension and stimulation of exocrine pancreatic secretion secondary to cholinergic stimulation are considered to be responsible for the development of pancreatitis .Furthermore, organophosphates such as echothiophate, which inhibit the two cholinesterase isoenzymes (butyrylcholinesterase and acetyl cholinesterase) in the human pancreas, increase pancreatic sensitivity to acetylcholine. Liver involvement observed in these patients was mostly secondary to pancreatic
Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening inherited disease that causes an extreme increase of abnormal thick secretions, destruction of the lungs and digestive system, and frequent respiratory infections. In this paper it will go in depth about how one obtains the disease, the statistic of CF, the sign and symptoms, the method of diagnosis, and the treatment with a special interest in lung transplants. This paper will glance into a interesting case study of a CF patient post lung transplant that obtained candida albican pancreatitis.CF is a very serious medical condition that has a variety of symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatments. CF was discovered in 1938 and since then there has been a great amount of information observed
So far it has been used as a digestive aid and an anti-inflammatory agent. It has mostly been used in the treatment of pancreatic insufficiency. This insufficiency is characterized by impaired digestion, malabsorption, passing of undigested food into the stool, nutrient deficiencies, gas, and abdominal bloating and discomfort7. Pancreatic deficiency can also occur in those with cystic fibrosis, chronic pancreatitis, and the elderly. Chronic stress, physical injuries, and chemotherapy could also result in chymotrypsin deficiency7.
Acute inflammation can be described as the immediate response to an inflammatory stimulus. and is caused by microbial infections (bacteria, fungi), hypersensitivity (to pollen/dust), physical agents (injury, temperature change), chemicals (corrosive substances) and tissue necrosis (ischaemic infarctions). Primary symptoms of acute inflammation include oedema, pain, loss of function in the affected area, heat and redness in the area. Chronic inflammation can be described as inflammation that lasts for an abnormally long period of time. Causes of chronic inflammation can either be due to primary chronic inflammation or secondary chronic inflammation.
Treatment: a. Endodontic treatment b. Apicectomy c. Extraction in case of severe bone loss d. Enucleation with 1ry closure e. Marsupilization with larger ones VI. CHRONIC ALVEOLAR ABSCESS Etiology: a. Pulpal necrosis b. Associated with chronic periapical periodontitis and abscess Signs and Symptoms: a. A sinus tract is usually common opening into the oral cavity b. Generally asymptomatic Diagnosis: a.
In the acute phase, if untreated, the infection can spread causing irreversible damage to the heart or brain. Following the acute phase is the intermediate phase during which most people are asymptomatic and few or no parasites are found in the blood.
I’ll begin my story here: I am 15, and it is midnight when my 8-year-old sister complains of excruciating pains in her stomach, and we rush her to the hospital. The doctor arrives 5 hours later, tired from having conducted a major surgery, but dedicated to his profession nonetheless. A case of acute pancreatitis, it is. Two weeks and thrice a dozen injections later, my initially exhausted, panicking, and despondent parents are, for the first time, finally smiling. All through these long weeks and procedures, I notice that the doctor, no matter how exhausted, withholds his composure and humility.