Acute Pyelonephritis Research Paper

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Acute Pyelonephritis: Acute pyelonephritis is considered an upper urinary tract infection. Acute pyelonephritis occurs due to the bacteria moving from the bladder up to the kidneys (Colgan, Williams, & Johnson, 2011). In pyelonephritis, approximately 60% of diagnosed cases are due to E.coli (Yodla et al., 2011). Classic symptoms of acute pyelonephritis include: fever, dysuria, and pain in lower back and/or groin area (Yodla et al., 2011). In the elderly, both respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms may also be present (Yodla et al., 2011). Confusion can be a symptom of an infection in the elderly. Leroy’s fever and costovertebral tenderness make acute pyelonephritis a probable diagnosis.
Acute Cystitis: Acute cystitis is caused by bacterium
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The four types of stones include: calcium, oxalate, uric acid, and phosphate (Wells et al., 2012). Kidney stones are typically more common in white men; however any individual can develop a stone (Wells et al., 2012). Patients with kidney stones will usually present with extreme pain, tachycardia, and hypertension (Wells et al., 2012). Kidney stones can be associated acute cystitis or acute pyelonephritis (Wells et al., 2012). Leroy’s pain and tachypnea could be associated with kidney stones. The slight fever could indicate that he is also suffering from either and upper or lower urinary tract infection as…show more content…
Treatment of acute pyelonephritis requires antibiotics. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) is used in cases when susceptibility in pyelonephritis is unknown (Colgan et al., 2011). The urine culture could take a couple of days to come back; therefore trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole would be an appropriate medication. Dosage for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is 160 mg/800 mg and the medication is taken twice daily for two weeks (Colgan et al., 2011). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole works by inhibiting the microbial synthesis of folic acid (Church, Fitzgerald, Walker, Gibb, & Prendergast, 2015). Folic acid is an important cofactor in the production of thymide and purines (Church et al., 2015). Separately, sulfamethoxazole works to inhibit the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid, whereas trimethoprim inhibits tetrahydrofolic acid production (Church et al.,

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