(Coase, 1976). He was acutely aware of the fact that a commercial society would possess ethical and moral shortcomings. Therefore, Smith “meticulously analysed and responded to Rousseau’s powerful critiques of its materialism, inequality, and inauthenticity” (Recovering Adam Smith 's ethical economics , 2012). Smith saw moral philosophy and economics as inextricably linked. However, today, there is a clear distinction between these two disciplines and generally they are taught separately.
One of the major responses to the book came from Robert Nozick in his book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia. Nozick offers a libertarian response to Rawls. Libertarian notion of politics implies that there is a recognition of natural human rights and if these rights are deprived would be an immoral act. The examples of this natural rights are the rights to personal autonomy and the right to properties. The assumptions behind A Theory of Justice are essentially redistributive: That is, Rawls posits equal distribution of resources as the desirable state and then argues that inequality can be justified only by benefits for the least advantaged.
The second argument is essentially upgraded from Argument 1. The author implicitly assumes it to help draw the overall contention. This essay spells it out as: Premise 1: Conditions like food shortage and poor sanitation reflect income imbalance. Hidden Premise: Income imbalance entails failure to eliminate marginal utility, which under the assumption of utilitarianism morality is bad. Qualification: Robustness of the utilitarian view of morality.
Today, the debate that perplexes society is whether collectivism provides answer for simplicity amongst a civilization. True collectivists believe in altruism, and these altruists believe the only way to bring a society together is by destroying individualism. Democracies believe that individualists remain the only way to keep society 's bonds intact. The stories “Harrison Bergeron” by Kurt Vonnegut and Anthem by Ayn Rand draws the line between the so-called perfect utopia versus an imperfect dystopia. One can see there are many similarities between “Harrison Bergeron” and Anthem.
Utilitarianism is an effort to provide an answer to the practical question. Velasquez (2006) posited “Utilitarianism is a general term for any view that holds that actions and policies should be evaluated on the basis of the benefits and costs they will impose on society”. This belief goes all the way back to Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill who we consider to be the founders of the philosophical concept of traditional utilitarianism. These two were of the belief that once our actions were right we tend to project happiness whereas if the action is wrong the outcome is unhappiness. Happiness was just not felt by the doer but also by everyone affected by the action and vice versa for the wrong action.
Despite being primarily known as an economist, Adam Smith assumed the role of a moral philosopher in writing The Theory of Moral Sentiments. In the work, he develops a unique moral theory that intertwines a reality based on human observation with an ideal that arises from Smith’s thoughts on the way people should be. In order to establish a foundation, Smith begins by describing the feeling of sympathy as being one that is shared by all humans. His discourse on sympathy, formed predominantly on observations, shifts to the theoretical topic of judging the propriety or impropriety of others and ourselves. These judgments are what ultimately form the basis of what is just and what is unjust, often being abstracted into general rules about justice.
“Is Morality Relative or are there Objective Moral Truths?” In A Defense of Ethical Relativism by Ruth Benedict from her “Anthropology and the Abnormal,” Journal of General Psychology, in her part take on Modern Social Anthropology, Benedict views ethical relativism as part of the new modern civilization in which each society has their own moral views and “like a work of art” each culture has a theme and certain tendencies which they chose to favor. On the contrary, The Case Against Moral Relativism by Louis P. Pojman, moral relativism is viewed as a misled argument by relativists and explains in detail some of the moral differences in each culture and how this affects humanity as a whole. Subjectivism, “Morality is in the eye of the beholder,”
Haag fundamentally disagrees with the idea that acquiring a class consciousness will instinctively lead to a desire to overthrow the capitalist system, and solve all problems plaguing society. (Haag, 1987) An awareness of one’s class and associated interests, he argues, is no more decisive in political alignments than other categorizations. (Haag, 1987, 28) Opinions and interests may be swayed by a plethora of factors; in fact, the idea of class consciousness and acting in one’s class interest may simply be a self-fulfilling prophecy, and not an honest action by a worker. (Haag, 1987, 28) Haag continues on to question the existence of class consciousness at all. A common critique of Marxist theories in general is its complete disregard to any nuance created by factors such as race, gender, and religion.
Do you see Karl Marx primarily as a humanist, a social scientist, or a revolutionary? Humanism can be defined as a philosophical and ethical stance that stresses the importance of human beings, independently and collectively, and generally favors critical thinking and confirmation (rationalism, empiricism) rather than established doctrine or faith (fideism). Karl Marx, a social, economic, and political theorist of the 1800s developed theories that encompassed the bettering of humanity, and opposed capitalism. His writings emphasized issues that arose from classist ideologies that created a hierarchy. In his explanation of classism he states, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles" (School of Social
4. Is the author 's argument based on any unproven assumptions? If so, identify the assumptions and identify what information is needed. The author 's arguments are based on unproven assumptions. For instance, he assumes that, it is false that material wealth is the standard of success and this goes hand in hand with the abandonment of the false belief that public office and high political position are to be valued only by the standards of pride of place and personal profit.