Keynesian economic theory relies on spending and aggregate demand to define the economic marketplace. Keynesian economists believe the aggregate demand is
INTRODUCTION Economic growth is defined as the increased capacity of an economy to be able to produce goods and services in comparison from one period of time to another. This is figured by the genuine Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and development, and is measured by utilizing genuine terms such as “Balanced Inflation”. These terms help to remove any distorted views on the perceived outcome of inflation on the cost of merchandises produced. Likewise, Economic growth is related to the high expectations in a person’s standard of living. If the standards are high, it wouldn’t be beneficial for the economy as the working class individuals will face a lot of trouble.
This curve became widely used by policymakers to control unemployment and inflation by manipulating the opposite variable. Acknowledging the inverse relationship between inflation and unemployment shown in the Phillips Curve, Phelps agreed that inflation depends on unemployment and vice-versa, but he challenged the curve's theoretical foundation and argued that the government should not use the curve as a basis for policy. He noted that when the government attempts to lower unemployment below its natural rate through expansionary monetary or fiscal policy, demand increases and firms respond by raising prices faster than anticipated by workers. With higher prices, firms receive a higher revenue and are able to hire more workers. When workers see that their wages have risen, they supply more labor, leading to a lower unemployment rate.
It is the rate at which depository institutions borrow and lend from one another in the federal funds market. The FOMC’s open market operations lower the rate by increasing the reserves supplied to the economy, or alternatively, raise the rate by reducing the supply of balances. Due to a term structure of interest rates, the changes in the short-term interest rates are transmitted to the long-term interest rates since the financial markets expect the changes to persist for an extended period of time or assume that they convey information about the future monetary policy. Also, the inflation inertia ensures that the change in the federal funds rate effectively influences the real interest rate which is equivalent of the cost of borrowing. By altering the cost, federal funds rate indirectly affects the spending and investment by households and businesses, which on their turn, impact output and inflation in the economy.
Keynesian theory includes aspect of increasing deficits and implementing tax cuts in a recession to generate revenues and employment; but, in times of economic booms implement higher taxes and reduce deficits to help stabilize the economy. This would allow the economy to work towards growth and low unemployment. Thus, the shift to the Keynesian model of economics occurred in the 1940’s because of the promises of achieving the goals of a growing economy and low unemployment rate. Therefore, a balanced budget would hinder these objectives because it would go against having deficits and adding to the growing National
For the economy as a whole, demand pulled inflation refers to the price increases which results from an excess of demand over supply. It is a form of inflation and categorized by the four parts (households, businesses, governments and foreign buyers). When these parts want to purchase greater output than the economy can produce and we need more cash to buy the same amount of goods as before and the value of money falls, so they have to compete in order to purchase limited amounts of products and services. Generally, the demand-pulled inflation result from any factor that increases aggregate demand.
John Maynard Keynes, a British economist has had a significant influence upon macroeconomics which includes various governments’ economic policies. Keynes believed that application of fiscal policies could lessen the effect of depressions and recessions. He supported lower taxes and increased government expenditures would trigger demand and drag the economy out of depression. (Stefano 2012) Keynesian economics are economic theories of total spending in one’s economy and its effects on inflation and output.
There are two main principles when it comes to fiscal policy. One is known as demand-side economics and the other is known as supply-side economics. Demand-side economics comes from John Maynard Keynes, an English economist, he suggested that if the government provided enough work for everyone, it would cause economic growth. This idea was first implemented in Roosevelt’s New Deal through many of the public work programs, and in times of economic crisis the democrats commonly go to demand-side economics in order to get America out of an economic slump. In contrast to demand-side economics, the republicans often refer to the idea of supply-side economics which was developed by the economist Arthur Laffer.
It attempts to explain long-run economic growth by looking at capital accumulation, labor or population growth, and increases in productivity, commonly referred to as technological progress. The model was developed independently by Robert Solow and Trevor Swan in 1956 Neoclassical growth theories The neoclassical growth theory is the economic theory that outlines how a steady economic growth rate will be accomplished with the proper amounts of the three driving forces: Labor Capital Technology The theory states that by varying the amounts of labor and capital in the production function, an equilibrium state can be accomplished. When a new technology becomes available, the labor and capital need to be adjusted to maintain growth equilibrium.