and they both pleaded guilty to money laundering and drug charges. Judge Andrew Stubbs of York Crown Court, sentenced Gledhill to 3 years and 9 months, and Brennan got a 13 year and 8-month jail sentence. Brennan has autism and his neighbours raised concerns about his welfare to North Yorkshire Police, who later
HIPAA Summary In 2009, the Congress created an act called Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). It is designed when people became concern about his or her personal information being stolen. With the media growing every day, it has become easier for people to hack into computer take identities and putting others at risk. The federal government made HIPAA way to reduce company’s downfalls and financial crisis due to theft.
On September 13,1994 President Clinton signed the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The legislation Increased federal penalties for many crimes, including adding new offenses that can be punished by death. Makes a variety of offenses new federal crimes, such as "drive-by" shootings and carjacking. Increases funding for
A second-degree rape charge occurs when a person whom is 18 years or older has sexual intercourse with a child under the age of fifteen. If the perpetrator is 18 and the child is 15, then any charges would be mitigated due to the age difference being under four years during the time of the offense. Second-degree rape is punishable by law up to seven years in prison and is a class D felony. First-degree rape is defined by sexual intercourse with someone under the age of eleven or someone under the age of thirteen if the perpetrator is age eighteen and older. Once charged with first-degree rape, the perpetrator will spend a minimal of five to a maximum of twenty-five years in prison and is a class B
The Innocence project was founded at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of law located at Yeshiva University and is a public organization which committed itself to the exoneration of falsely convicted individuals through deoxyribonucleic acid testing. In 2004 The Innocence Project became a nonprofit organization, continuing its close affiliation with Cardozo. Since the founding of The Innocence Project it has spread throughout the nation, aiding those who have nowhere else to turn. Since the first DNA exoneration in 1989, exonerations have been won in 37 states, totaling 337 exonerations. To date more than “337 people in the United States have been exonerated by DNA testing, including 20 individuals who were at one time sentenced to death” (The Innocence Project).
The law was intended for violent crimes. Three strikes laws are used excessively in for crimes like theft or drug possession. In California, Leandro Andrade was given two consecutive terms of twenty-five years to life for three felony theft, drugs and burglary in 1995 (Heyer, 2012). Perhaps Andrade could have been rehabilitated, but instead, he is one of many prisoners in the overcrowded prisons in California. Three strikes laws overcrowd prisons by giving people excessive sentences for crimes that do not fit the punishment.
The Unites States is by far in a better position since the passage of the Homeland Security Bill of 2003. This bill has strengthened and fortified our borders to ensure we are never attacked again like were on September 11, 2001. “There have been a number of planned attacks that have been prevented on U.S. soil and abroad within the past several years” because of the Homeland Security Bill that was put into place (Keefer, 2017). This act vetted a lot of agencies and brought them together in order to make our country much safer than it ever has been. The combing of 22 federal agencies into one new cabinet level department as well as creating four new divisions was the biggest federal reorganization since the creation of the Department of
Numerous non-profit organizations were formed to fight the existence of trafficking and to provide help for it’s victims. In 2001, President Barack Obama declared January to be Human Trafficking Awareness month in order to raise more awareness of the problem and in turn, create better legislation that protects trafficking victims and prosecute traffickers. In 2013, the Michigan Commission on Human Trafficking was created in order to compile a report on trafficking in the state and make recommendation to address the problem. This report was what jump started the 2014 legislative package. In March of 2015, it was reported that out of all 50 States, Michigan had the second highest rates of human
No Child Left Behind was passed by congress and was signed by President George Bush. The federal role was holding schools accountable for the students academic success due to No Child Left Behind law. Standard testing were given to ensuring that states and schools were performing and were achieving at a certain level. If states did not comply with the new requirements of No Child Left Behind then they were at risk of losing federal funding. The No Child Left Behind was ultimately created to change the fact that American education system was considered internationally competitive.
For example, parental accountability laws and case processing standards have become common (National Criminal Justice Association 1997; Butts and Sanborn 1999). Accountability laws make parents civilly or criminally liable for the behavior of their children. Case processing laws and standards place time limits on the amount of time the courts can allow for the adjudication and/or disposition of delinquency cases. Alongside of such changes are new federally sponsored efforts to promote a range of other policies, such as expanding the use of risk and needs assessment and restorative justice programs (Andrews and Marble 2003). Collectively, these and other emerging efforts aim to improve juvenile justice through a myriad of ways, some punitive, some rehabilitative, and some not neatly fitting one category or the other.
The Espionage Act of 1917 is a United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been changed a lot of times over the years. The Espionage Act is a federal legislature that was passed in 1917. The Act criminalizes and punishes espionage, spying and related crimes.
There are a lot of things that influence African Americans lives, but jail incarceration and poverty seems to be at the root. I am mentioning poverty because unjust jail incarceration is linked adjacent to it. According to the State of Working America in a 2013 study, African Americans, poverty rates are the highest at 27%. According to the NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, “African Americans now constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated population.”
The Fair Sentencing Act (FSA) is an act initiated by Assistant Senate Majority Leader Dick Durbin, and passed by Congress, to become law on August 3, 2010 (Phillips 2012 ). The FSA intent is to reduce the gap between the amount of crack cocaine and powder cocaine needed to initiate federal criminal penalties from a 100:1 weight ratio to an 18:1 weight ratio. The FSA also eliminates the five-year mandatory minimum sentence for the possession of crack cocaine (Reid 2012). The FSA replaced the controversial Anti-Drug Abuse Act (ADAA) of 1986, that was seen as a racially bias, expensive, and unfair legislation from the Reagan Administration 's “War on Drugs” from the mid 1980s ().
In 1974 the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act was established (CAPTA). CAPTA "provides for federal development of prevention and assistance to states to enable the development of prevention and treatment programs for abuse and neglect"(Segal, 2015, p 301). Child Protective Services (CPS) was not fully enforce back in the day. The case of "Little Mary Ellen" led for there to be an act to protect child. They did not have a protect program established for children. "
When working with children and young people, it is important that their safety and well-being is paramount. There are a number of guidelines, policies and procedures which cover the safeguarding of pupils, including; Working together to safeguard children (2013)- This policy sets out guidelines of how organisations and individuals should work together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people in accordance with the Children Act 1989 and the Children Act 2004. As well as laying out these guidelines, the document also provides a summary of: The nature of child abuse and neglect and the impact it may have on children and young people. How to operate the best practice in child protection procedure.