o Discuss biochemical/molecular biological/physiological basis of the disease Hyperlipidemia can either be genetically inherited or caused by lifestyle habits such as obesity, unhealthy diet, and it certainly is more common in the elderly. Even though patients with this condition have no symptoms, homeostatic changes in the body such as both levels of triglycerol and cholesterol are elevated in the blood stream. The primary source of cholesterol is not from diet, but from liver synthesis. LDL receptors are important in maintaining LDL levels, also known as “bad” cholesterol.
11.3.Glucagon Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Glucagon possesses adverse effects of insulin. So in regulating the blood glucose level, the pancreas produces both insulin and glucagon. This hormone is produced after the meal and during your sleep time. It is the glucagon that helps the liver to break down the food you eat to manufacture glucose.
Cholesterol is a waxy fat-like substance that is produced in the liver.40 Cholesterol is necessary to make hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. It is a key ingredient in cortisol which helps control the inflammation. Cholesterol is necessary for vitamin D production from sunlight. It also helps create bile acids that digests fats. Cholesterol also plays a significant role in the synthesis of cell membranes.
low blood sugar level). It occurs anywhere between 1 to 3 hours after eating. The hypoglycemia associated with LDS causes symptoms such as: • Tremors • Sweating • Hunger • Palpitations • Sweating • Fatigue • Fainting • Confusion • Aggression LDS reactive hypoglycemia occurs due to a rapid absorption of glucose from the small intestine and a responsive hyper-secretion of insulin with stays elevated for a period longer than usual. GLP-1 is thought to play a crucial role in LDS as it is a potent anti-hyperglycemic hormone a. It often found to have an elevated response in patients who have had operations that speed up gastric emptying and causes increased insulin secretion, further compounding hypoglycemia.
Young Kids, Old Bodies talks about obesity and its growing problem. Along with insightful article, the visual representation shows: ill effect of obesity, percentile of obese girls versus boys based on race and how physical activity helps children avoid obesity. According to the visual aid on the article, obesity leads to malfunction of various internal organs and diseases. One of the many effects of fatty tissues is heart attack due to thickening of arteries (Parks, Young Kids, Old Bodies).
However, it has already been proven that one of the reasons for the boom in type 2 diabetes is the widening of waistbands and the trend toward a more deskbound and inactive lifestyle in the United States and other developed countries. In America, the shift has been striking; in the 1990s alone, obesity increased by 61% and diagnosed diabetes by 49%. For this reason, health experts encourage those who already have type 2 diabetes to start employing the wonders that exercise can do for them.
If any of your family members have diabetes, your risk factor is slightly higher to get both types of diabetes. Genetics – certain gene is responsible for increased risk of diabetes. Geography – according to numerous research the risk factors increase as you travel away from equator. Age – at this case type one and type two diabetes quite differ from each other.
This is normally experienced with patients with Type 2 diabetes and is usually associated with obesity and older age. On the other hand, Type 1 diabetes, otherwise known as Juvenile-onset diabetes, which usually starts in people younger than thirty (30) is a chronic autoimmune disorder which results in the inadequate production of insulin as the consequence of the destruction or damage of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. The International Diabetes Federation (Diabetes Atlas, 2003) specified that people with type 2 diabetes does not depend on exogenous insulin and are not ketosis-prone. They, however, may require insulin but only for the control of hyperglycemia when diet and medications becomes insufficient.
When taking beta blockers they block B1 and B2 receptors therefore the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine. By blocking these neurotransmitter effects, beta blockers reduce heart rate, decrease blood pressure, and help blood vessels open up to improve blood flow. (Ogbru & Mark, 2015) This class of medications are important because they the most commonly used medications for cardiovascular diseases. Some of the common diseases that beta blockers treat are angina, heart failure, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial
RDI values suggest that around 1000mg of calcium should be consumed per day. This diet provides an average of 371.53mg per day, less than 50% of the recommended amount [refer to Graph 1], meaning the intake of calcium is significantly lacking. Insufficient intake of calcium could lead to the reabsorption of skeletal calcium, leading to osteoporosis in the long term (MelinePlus, 2015). Sodium is required in the diet to assist in the contraction and relaxation of muscle, and work with potassium to control fluids entering and leaving cells. RDI values suggest that 460-920mg should be consumed per day.
Americans must put an end to this epidemic before it takes any more lives. Between the increasing rate of obese Americans, the risk it is putting our country at, and the additional health problems that can come with obesity, it is important for people to take care of themselves before it is too late. Obesity in the United States has been growing at such an alarming rate in the past few decades. This is alarming because of the severity of obesity and
Limit the use of coffee because caffeine is linked to kidney stones due to elevated urine calcium. 7. Avoid calcium supplements, not calcium rich foods: People who take diets rich in calcium have lower risk of stones in kidney by one third than those who limit their calcium diets. This is because high dietary calcium blocks a type of chemical reaction that causes the stone formation. People taking calcium supplements are more at risk of forming stones in kidney by 20%.